"The Formula"
Brian Fraser, HCC-130, Due 10-21-04
Copyright 2004, 2011, 2012, 2014 2015 by Brian Fraser
Updated 8-7-17

I was a young student at the local university. When flu season came along, I would always get sick with influenza, usually for a solid week. I was taking a heavy class load in chemical engineering, and, of all times, I did not want to get sick just before final exams. I also did not have the money to see a doctor, nor did I like going to the infirmary and sitting around with the other sick kids only to be told by the doctor, "There is nothing I can do for you. You just need a lot of rest until this passes." I did not have time to rest and I HATED BEING MISERABLE! I needed to find a way to get rid of the flu quickly.

In those days there was a lot of talk about vitamin C, and how it could help fight off the flu. I decided to look into it. I got some nutrition books by Adelle Davis and started reading. I found that vitamin C was necessary to make the antibody complement (among other things) and that the need for it skyrocketed during an illness. But that was only part of the story. Pantothenic acid, vitamin B6 and magnesium were needed too. These nutrients were in especially high demand by the body during a viral illness.

I finally developed a protocol that I felt would help me recover from the flu. It went like this:

When sick with the flu, take the following, without fail, every four hours for about 24 hours:

1. Vitamin C, 1000-2000 mg

2. Pantothenic acid, 200-400 mg

3. Vitamin B6, 25 mg

4. Magnesium, 50-200 mg

5. Vitamin A palmitate (or vitamin A from fish oil) 10,000 I.U.

Additionally:

6. Stay somewhat uncomfortably warm. Avoid taking antipyretic drugs like aspirin unless the fever is getting really high (104 F)

7. If possible, eat something nutritious, even if it is only a bowl of vegetable soup.

8. Take a quality multivitamin a few times during the 24 hours.

This was the "bare bones" student version of the protocol. The dosages were approximately what I would take when I was already very sick with the flu. Milder cases did not require as much.

When I was utterly sick and miserable, the formula was hard to take.  I knew missing a dose would be problematic. The need for vitamin C skyrockets to about 70 times normal during such an illness. And pantothenic acid is needed to form some thirty-odd adrenal hormones and for the production of antibodies and gamma globulins. If I missed a dose, I would quickly become deficient in these nutrients for which there was such an extreme demand. So I had to set an alarm clock to make sure I got up every four hours to take each dose.

I also learned how to fine tune the formula to my particular needs. If I took more vitamin C than my intestines could absorb, I would get temporary diarrhea (timed-release vitamin C seemed to mitigate this problem). If I took more than my body needed, it would act as a diuretic. And staying warm was not enough; I had to be slightly uncomfortably warm to get well. This little nuance seemed to make a big difference. Sometimes, due to circumstances, I would not have one of the ingredients, usually pantothenic acid or B6. I would not run a temperature or get well quickly until I supplied the missing ingredient.

The response to "the formula," as I called it, was very predictable. During the first 1-8 hours, absolutely nothing would happen. No improvement, no change . . . nothing. After about 8-12 hours I would see hints that I might be getting better, but I was still very sick. At about 12-16 hours I would feel that I was definitely getting better. After 16 hours I was sure the illness was coming under control rapidly. After 24 hours, and almost to the exact hour, I would be essentially over the "active disease" portion of the illness and into the "clean up" phase. I would be well enough to go back to school, or to work, but I would still be blowing my nose, maybe taking an occasional antihistamine, and massaging a few stiff muscles. And my need for the formula would continue, but at a much reduced level, for another two or three weeks.

Eventually I realized that I did not need to get sick first in order to get well. At the first sign of the flu I would take a scaled-down version of the formula. I would run a temperature for a few hours, but not get sick. Or I would feel inexplicably tired, but not get ill (or even run a temperature) when half the office was out with the flu. This realization seems silly now, looking back on it. But modern "healthcare" is really "sickness care" not "wellness care." We still suffer from the same misconceptions today!

Years later, I was working at an engineering job at an international company. We continually had people flying back and forth to the Far East. They would bring back every edition of the flu imaginable. And, it seemed that people in the office did not know anything about healthcare. They would sneeze openly into the room without covering their mouth. Or if they covered their mouth, they would not wash their hands. As they subsequently handled common objects like door knobs, microwave ovens, file cabinets, phones, paper cutters, staplers, etc., the flu would rapidly spread. I finally got tired of this. Maybe I should let my work mates know about my formulanow thirty years old.

I convinced one lady, a "cubemate" to try it. She said that it worked well and began calling it "the recipe". When her husband got sick, he tried it and it worked for him too. I wish I could have pursued this little experiment further, and had been able to test the various enhancements I developed over the years beyond the original student version. But the economy took a dive and we all got laid off. And that was the end of that.

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Note from Brian Fraser: The article above was written as a student paper for a healthcare class I was taking at Gateway Community College in Phoenix, Arizona.  I am placing it on the Internet because this season (2004-2005) there is a shortage of flu shots and people may want to explore alternatives which have been very effective for some people.

Note that the above paper only deals with ordinary bouts of the flu. People who are extremely ill will likely be hospitalized and under the immediate care of a physician. In such a case I recommend that the equivalent of these nutrients be given by injection or in an IV. I have no experience with these situations however, nor have I received any reports of such.

There are several issues that I did not address in this short paper that are addressed below in the Addendum.

__________

Addendum

Control of vomiting
Control of diarrhea
Control of irregular heart beat
Control of sore throat
Maintaining a healthy fever
Enhancements:
   Vitamin D3
   Beta Glucan
   Iodine/Iodide
   N-Acetyl cysteine
   Monolaurin
  Vaccination Concerns  
   Zinc
   Olive Leaf Extract
   Naproxen

   Isoprinosine
   HIV-AIDS
Possible remedies for sluggish immune system response

Control of vomiting: One problem I had to confront when using a nutritional treatment for the flu was how to take the formula if I were so nauseated I could not eat anything. My experience with this problem is limited, and my solution to it is only for the so-called "stomach flu."  The remedy was simple. I reasoned that I felt like vomiting because my stomach wanted to get rid of something it did not like. I decided to just help it along on its natural course.  I drank a  large cup of water and then sat myself in front of the toilet. After about 10 minutes, I threw up rather forcefully. Then I drank more water. This time it stayed down for twenty minutes. I threw up again, but the fluid was much clearer.  I drank more water, and after it had stayed down for about 30 minutes, I decided that my stomach was "rinsed out enough" to tolerate a little of my formula. I mashed all the pills with a spoon so if I vomited again, I would not be choking on a half-dissolved tablet. The procedure worked fine and I got well quickly.

I was not so fortunate with my second encounter with this problem years later. I was in a hotel and was very tired.  I kept throwing up about every 45 minutes throughout the night.  I would sleep and throw up, sleep a little more and throw up. . .  After what seemed like a half-dozen cycles of this, I decided to use my Drastic Solution:  I put two drops of tincture of iodine in a cup of water and drank it.  The water tasted terrible, but I felt that whatever "bug" was causing me this problem was going to DIE! and the revenge tasted sweet.  It worked, and I never threw up again that night.

Control of diarrhea: My remedy for diarrhea adopts the same reasoning: diarrhea is caused by the body wanting to rid itself of something it does not like. I just drink water and let it run its course, which is usually just a couple of hours. For a more persistent case, I drink a large glass of water with about a tablespoon of activated charcoal stirred into it.  The charcoal will adsorb any toxins and nutrients that may remain in the intestine. Afterwards, I try to wait about 12 to 24 hours before eating any food, although I continue to drink water as desired.

Activated charcoal can be purchased at many drugstores, although some charge an outrageous price for it.  It is available in dry powder form, which is often dusty and messy to use, or as a small bottle containing activated charcoal premixed with water (just shake and drink the whole thing).  Note that the label must specifically say activated charcoal, not just "charcoal". Activated charcoal will soak up many types of organic poisons, but it will also combine just as easily with food and medicine.  Use it only with water. Save the food and medicine for later.  (Caution: persistent diarrhea could be serious and may require medical intervention. Also, glutamine, an amino acid, is believed to be useful for treating certain types of diarrhea.)

Vitamin A palmitate might also be effective against diarrhea.

Control of irregular heart beat:   Sometimes when I get a little sick, my heartbeat will get slightly irregular. This usually occurs either during flu season, or when I do something nutritionally stupid like eat half a can of cashew nuts all at once. I found that a large capsule of perilla oil (about a gram) will set my heart rhythm back to normal in about 20 minutes. For this particular purpose perilla oil seems to work better than fish oil, although in the long run, fish oil is probably better for the cardiovascular system. (If fish oil upsets your stomach or smells "fishy",  it may be slightly rancid; try a different brand). Magnesium and taurine can also be helpful nutrients for an irregular heatbeat.

Control of sore throat: My experience with a sore throat is very limited. I hate getting sore throats so much that, at the first sign I am about to get one, I take 50,000 I.U. of Vitamin A (from fish oil or vitamin A palmitate) and 2,000 I.U. of vitamin D3. Then I wait an hour and see what happens. Typically, the symptoms will quickly subside, but then return several hours later.  This usually means that I am about to get sick with the flu, and so I also start taking some vitamin C and pantothenic acid as well. But I  never get a fully-developed "clinical" sore throat. As long as my potential sore throat seems to be a "simple" one that is associated with the flu season, I'll continue taking massive doses of vitamin A until I think the threat has passed (which is usually a day or two). After that, I'll drop back to lower doses. Also, most drug stores sell a "sore throat spray" containing 1.4% phenol that is helpful in controlling sore throat pain. (Caution: Sore throats can be serious and may require medical intervention; the immune system cannot reach certain parts of the body very well, such as thin bone and cartilage. Severe sore throats may require an antibiotic treatment (e.g., a course of Amoxicillin);  also, high doses of "preformed" vitamin A will increase the vitamin D requirement.)

When traveling, I always carry some vitamin A palmitate with me. It is the first thing I take for a sore throat or diarrhea.

Maintaining a healthy fever: In the above paper I mentioned that a person with the flu needs to stay "somewhat uncomfortably warm."  This point needs some elaboration. Steven E. Langer, M.D., points out some experiments on how the body uses fever to fight an infection:

"Experiments by G. W. Duff and S. K. Durum showed that at two degrees centigrade of fever, certain immune system defendersT cells and antibodiesincreased by 2000 percent over their number at normal body temperature. Similar findings were reported by another research team. Antibody production in the spleen cells has been found to increase dramatically during a fever. Scientists have concluded that the hormone-like substances, called interleukin-1, set off body defense cells to fight infection and also send the brain signals to increase body temperature to provide an ideal climate for the multiplication of defense cells. Many physiologists believe that human beings are equipped with a temperature regulation system which puts a ceiling on fever at approximately 41.11 degrees centigrade (106 degrees Fahrenheit). In heat stroke and malignant hyperthermia, temperature breaks through to killing levels."  (Solved: The Riddle of Illness, Stephen E. Langer, 1984, p. 37-38)

He also mentions the studies done on infected lizards. Lizards are cold blooded, meaning they cannot maintain their body heat independently of the environment.  What does a lizard do when it gets sick?  We find out in the studies of M. J. Kluger:

"Lizards do not have a built-in fever-generating system such as ours and must find fever-inducing sources on the outside. The Kluger team learned that sick lizards have an instinct which makes them seek hot environments in order to raise their body temperatures to fever level when they are sick. Infected fish, too, swim to warmer water to raise their temperatures and combat illness." (ibid., p.37-38)

Modern physiology text books also acknowledge this concept:

"Elevated body temperature due to fever offers powerful protection. Higher body temperature causes the liver and spleen to sequester iron, which reduces the level of iron in the blood. Since bacteria and fungi require more iron as temperature rises, their growth and reproduction in a fever-ridden body slow and may cease. Also, phagocytic cells attack more vigorously when the temperature rises. For these reasons, low-grade fever of short duration may be a desired response, not something to be treated aggressively with medications."  (Hole's Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology, D. Shier, J. Butler, and R. Lewis, 8th ed., (2003) p. 374)

When I get sick, I know I am not going to get well until I start running a fever, or a least a temperature. If I get "the chills" and I am in a warm room, I know my body is trying to generate heat and that I am probably in the early stages of getting sick. I take the formula, and then promptly do something to get warm. Depending on the circumstances, it might be taking a hot shower, putting on more clothes and coats, turning up the thermostat, jumping into bed and piling on the blankets, or eating some hot soup.  But being comfortably warm does not seem to be quite enough. Once, I got comfortably warm in bed, but then I turned on the electric blanket. After that, I felt hot, but I was still comfortable. I got the impression that my body needed a lot more heat than I thought it did. So in the early stages of fighting off the flu, I try to stay just a little bit uncomfortably warm.

After several hours, I just seem to know when I am "done" and the illness, what of it there was, has run its course. All the extra clothes and blankets start coming off. After that stage passes, I just try to stay normally warm and comfortable.

Enhancements to The Formula

I have been reluctant to write about enhancements to The Formula. Although I use some of the enhancements listed below, their efficacy is hard to prove because I just don't get sick anymore. Still, they are worth mentioning, and might even be crucial in some cases. Hence, I'll cite some of the literature references about nutrients that I think are useful in treating influenza and other diseases.

Vitamin D3:

This inexpensive vitamin is apparently useful in treating or preventing influenza. Please read the following article in full, a quotation from which follows:

"Epidemic Influenza And Vitamin D", Dr. J. J. Cannell, 15 Sep 2006,  http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/medicalnews.php?newsid=51913

Although our paper discusses the possibility that physiological doses of vitamin D (5,000 units a day) may prevent colds and the flu, and that physicians might find pharmacological doses of vitamin D (2,000 units per kilogram of body weight per day for three days) useful in treating some of the one million people who die in the world every year from influenza, we remind readers that it is only a theory. Like all theories, our theory must withstand attempts to be disproved with dispassionately conducted and well-controlled scientific experiments.

However, as vitamin D deficiency has repeatedly been associated with many of the diseases of civilization, we point out that it is not too early for physicians to aggressively diagnose and adequately treat vitamin D deficiency. We recommend that enough vitamin D be taken daily to maintain 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels at levels normally achieved through summertime sun exposure (50 ng/ml). For many persons, such as African Americans and the elderly, this will require up to 5,000 units daily in the winter and less, or none, in the summer, depending on summertime sun exposure.

For a 150 pound man (68 kg) "2000 units per kilogram of body weight" equates to about 136,000 I.U. each day for three days (during the illness). The D3 form (colecalciferol) is the most effective.

Vitamin D is made by interaction of the sun’s ultraviolet light (UVB) with 7-dehydrocholesterol in the outer layers of the skin. Production is low in the winter time in the United States when the sun is lower in the sky, and people are wearing heavy coats, and staying in-doors more. During this time, the flu season is at its peak.

The pattern in the Topics is more seasonally diffuse, but tends to peak during the rainy season (another time of low sun exposure):

"Laboratory-based surveillance data showed a clear annual epidemic cycle of influenza, with a peak usually occurring in the rainy periods. In Fortaleza, flu infections occurred at a low level throughout the year but exhibit a marked seasonal increase during the rainy season." (“Seasonality of Influenza in the Tropics: A Distinct Pattern in Northeastern Brazil”, Fernanda E. A. Moura*, Anne C. B. Perdigćo, and Marilda M. Siqueira, http://www.ajtmh.org/cgi/content/abstract/81/1/180?ck=nck )

This lends credibility to the hypothesis that seasonal influenza epidemics may be primarily a vitamin D deficiency disease.

Donald W. Miller, Jr., MD offers another important observation:

Vitamin D regulates the expression of more than 1,000 genes throughout the body. They include ones in macrophages, cells in the immune system that, among other things, attack and destroy viruses. Vitamin D switches on genes in macrophages that make antimicrobial peptides, antibiotics the body produces. Like antibiotics, these peptides attack and destroy bacteria; but unlike antibiotics, they also attack and destroy viruses.

Vitamin D also expresses genes that stop macrophages from overreacting to an infection and releasing too many inflammatory agents – cytokines – that can damage infected tissue. . . .In the 1918–19 Spanish flu pandemic that killed 500,000 Americans, young healthy adults would wake up in the morning feeling well, start drowning in their own inflammation as the day wore on, and be dead by midnight. . . . Autopsies showed complete destruction of the epithelial cells lining the respiratory tract resulting, researchers now know, from a macrophage-induced severe inflammatory reaction to the virus. In a terribly misguided way, these victims’ own immune system attacked and killed them, not the virus, something in future pandemics vitamin D, in appropriate doses, can prevent. (Donald W. Miller, Jr., MD, http://www.lewrockwell.com/miller/miller27.html#  )

Other articles about Vitamin D:

"The Antibiotic Vitamin: Deficiency in vitamin D may predispose people to infection", Janet Raloff, Science News,  http://www.sciencenews.org/articles/20061111/bob9.asp

"Epidemic influenza and vitamin D",  http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=469543

"The Miracle Vitamin: New evidence shows that getting enough D may be the most important thing you can do for your health", Reader's Digest,  Sept, 2006, Paula Dranov, p. 163+ http://www.rd.com/content/openContent.do?contentId=28654&trkid=rdmagkw_0609

"Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy: an ongoing epidemic", Bruce W Hollis and Carol L Wagner, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 84, No. 2, 273, August 2006, http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/full/84/2/273

"Sunlight may cut MS risk by itself", Science News, Nathan Seppa, April 24, 2010, p. 9 (" "We concluded that UV light is doing something beyond" making vitamin D")

"High doses of Vitamin D help tuberculosis patients recover more quickly" (2012) http://medicalxpress.com/news/2012-09-high-doses-vitamin-d-tuberculosis.html

Articles about Pandemic Influenza and H5N1 Bird Flu:

"Why Pandemic Influenza Is So Frightening: A Look Back at 1918 in the Hope of Inspiring Informed Concern for the Present and Future", Howard Markel, MD, PhD, Posted 11/16/2006,   http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/546865?src=mp

"Key Facts About Avian Influenza (Bird Flu) and Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Virus" http://www.cdc.gov/flu/avian/gen-info/facts.htm

b 1,3-Glucan (from baker's yeast)

While doing a source material search for an article on anthrax and terrorism, I came across an article about b 1,3-glucan. ("Pilot Study: Orally-Administered Yeast b1,3-glucan Prophylactically Protects Against Anthrax Infection and Cancer in Mice", Vaclav Vetvicka, PhD, Kiyomi Terayama, MD, Rosemonde Mandeville, MD, PhD, Pauline Brousseau, PhD, Bill Kournikakis, PhD, Gary Ostroff, PhD, The Journal of the American Nutraceutical Association, Vol. 5, No. 2, Spring 2002 ( www.biotherapharma.com/pdf/glucan-reprint5-2.pdf    )

In their study, Vetvicka et al. used oral ā1,3-glucan (ImucellTM WGP Beta Glucan) from a yeast source in mice infected with Bacillus anthracis. With the high incidence of complications associated with anthrax vaccines, an alternative approach is badly needed in this era of bioterrorism threat. Dr. Ken Alibek, a top-ranking scientist at the Russian bioweapons labs, stated that because of the number of possible bioweapon agents available, something other than mass inoculations would be needed. He suggested non-specific immune stimulation. The most effective form of nonspecific immune stimulation is macrophage activation.

. . . . b1,3-glucan also stimulates phagocytosis of neutrophils. In one study, the killing efficiency of neutrophils was increased 20- to 50-fold. . . . b1,3-glucan has been shown to increase lymphocyte production, NK cell activation, and activation of macrophages. "

Beta 1,3-glucan can also boost the innate immune response to the swine flu virus:

Scientists exposed two groups of newborn pigs to the swine flu virus. . . . In this important experiment, one group of piglets received beta-glucan for three days before being infected with swine flu, while the other group received only a placebo for three days before infection with live virus. Objective evidence of swine flu infection in the lungs of piglets that had been infected, but not given beta-glucan, was significantly more severe than in the infected animals that had been pre-treated with beta-glucan.11

Furthermore, pigs that had been pre-treated with beta-glucan had significantly higher concentrations of natural disease-fighting substances, including interferon-gamma, in fluid obtained from the lungs within a week of infection. The researchers concluded that beta-glucan reduced signs of lung disease and the viral replication rate in the test subjects. These findings support the potential application of beta-glucan to prevent or treat influenza virus infection.11  http://www.lef.org/magazine/mag2004/apr2004_aas_01.htm

In short, b1,3-glucan administered orally in humans enhances the immune system’s response to various threats, including influenza. A potential worry however, is that it could work too well in the case of H1N1 flu virus. Will it cause the inflammatory cytokine storm (mentioned above in section on vitamin D) that was lethal to people who contracted the 1918 Swine Flu? Medical opinion seems to be somewhat unsettled at this point. Dr. Russell Blaylock quotes studies that indicate highly purified b1,3-glucan derived from baker's yeast will not produce this kind of excessive inflammatory response. See  http://healthandknowledge.com/betaglucanblog/?tag=cytokine-storm Until more studies are done, I would suggest using Vitamin D (and A) to suppress inflammation (especially in young people), and proceeding with caution if administering b1,3-glucan. (However, see N-Acetyl cysteine, and Herxheimer reaction below)

Quality b 1,3-glucan is available commercially and is used as a dietary supplement. I have had especially good results with Beta-1,3D Glucan (500 mg) by Beta Force

Caution: A Herxheimer ("die off" or "immune cascade") reaction might occur upon initial use of b1,3-glucan.

See also http://www.beta-glucan-info.com/test_results_immune_support_1.htm
http://alternativecancer.us/betaglucan.htm

"Reishi Mushroom" (effects similar to Beta Glucan)  http://www.mskcc.org/cancer-care/herb/reishi-mushroom

Iodine/Iodide

I have not found anything in the medical literature pertaining to the use of iodine/iodide in the treatment of influenza specifically. However, David Brownstein, M.D. states: "I have come to the conclusion that iodine deficiency sets up the immune system to malfunction which can lead to many . . . disorders developing." http://www.optimox.com/pics/Iodine/IOD-09/IOD_09.htm   A sampling of sundry articles and authors shows that oral iodine has been used to treat fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue immune deficiency syndrome, autoimmune disorders, fibrocystic breast disease, polycystic ovary syndrome, various cancers, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, goiter, obesity, diabetes, varicose veins, hemorrhoids, urinary tract infections, lead and mercury poisoning, syphilis ("this disease yields in the most rapid and unmistakable fashion to iodides" circa 1911), Lyme disease, aneurysm,  arteriosclerosis, angina pectoris, hypertension, cataracts, cardiac arrhythmias, gout, hemophilia, Bright's disease (nephritis), asthma, bronchitis, and odd skin disturbances. It is sufficient to say that a dietary iodine/iodide deficiency is not a good thing to have!

Circa 1920 iodide was added to table salt for the public prevention of goiter, a disorder of the thyroid gland. Subsequently, the incidence of goiter markedly decreased. In the early1960s potassium iodate was used as a dough conditioner for bread, and so back then one slice of bread would satisfy the RDA of 150 µg. for iodine. But nowadays dietary iodine is becoming marginal, even deficient. The iodine in dough conditioner was replaced with bromine (a chemical relative), effectively removing bread from being a source of iodine. And people are nowadays trying to avoid their main source of iodine, namely table salt, because of its association with high blood pressure.  Additionally, the amount of iodine  required to prevent  disease  is much less than that required to promote health (health requires about 60 times the amount of iodine used to prevent goiter). The result is widespread iodine/iodide deficiencies in the American diet. Says Guy E. Abraham, M.D.: "the human body needs at least 100 times the RDA" ( http://www.optimox.com/pics/Iodine/IOD-08/IOD_08.htm ) That is about 15 milligrams (not micrograms) of iodine/iodide per day.

Women have especially high iodine requirements. The breasts,  thyroid, and ovaries are avid concentrators of iodine:

“Human breast tissue and breast milk contain higher concentrations of iodine than the thyroid gland itself, which contains just 30% of the body’s iodine stores. Breast tissue is rich in the same iodine-transporting proteins used by the thyroid gland to take up iodine from the blood.  The evolutionary reasons for this are clear: iodine is essential to the developing newborn brain, so the mother’s body must have a direct means of supplying iodine to the nursing infant.  ( “The Silent Epidemic of Iodine Deficiency”, Nancy Piccone, www.lef.org/magazine/mag2011/oct2011_The-Silent-Epidemic-of-Iodine-Deficiency_01.htm

Correcting a long-standing iodine deficiency requires weeks to months of supplementation with an iodine/iodide mixture. Supplemental iodine is thus not a short term treatment for acute influenza. Adequate dietary iodine/iodide simply helps to normalize immune system function, and could make subsequent infections easier to treat (as well as helping to avoid various degenerative diseases).

Traditionally,  a few drops a day of Lugol's solution was used to prevent iodine deficiencies. It contains elemental iodine, potassium iodide, and water. Today, Iodoral® , a solid tablet equivalent of liquid Lugol's, is regarded as a more convenient supplement. Some people even use tincture of iodine, %2 as a supplement; it is very similar to Lugol's in that it contains both forms of iodine (check the labeling) but with a bit of alcohol because it is a "tincture". It is the form I prefer (a few drops in a cup of water, perhaps with soluble fiber) because it is cheap and readily available. Of course, the label says "Poison, for external use only" and so you must decide for yourself whether you want to use it this way.

Links:
   http://www.optimox.com/pics/Iodine/opt_Research_I.shtml
   http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Iodine
   http://www.alkalizeforhealth.net/Liodine.htm
   http://www.lef.org/magazine/mag2011/oct2011_The-Silent-Epidemic-of-Iodine-Deficiency_01.htm

  http://publications.imva.info/index.php/e-books/iodine-treats-disease-on-the-level-of-cause.html (abstract)
  http://www.vrp.com/articles.aspx?ProdID=1781
  http://www.thyroidscience.com/reviews/derry/Derry.flu.iodine.9.19.09.pdf

  http://drsircus.com/medicine/iodine/iodine-protects-fluoride-toxicity/  

  http://www.ehjournal.net/content/pdf/s12940-015-0003-1.pdf   "Exposure to fluoridated water and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder prevalence among children and adolescents in the United States: an ecological association Ashley", J Malin,  Christine Till (2015) 

N-Acetyl cysteine (NAC)

N-Acetyl cysteine is known mostly for its use in treating acetaminophen toxicity accompanied by acute liver failure, and also for treating Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder. But it has several other uses such as in treatment of stomach ulcers, Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension, cancer, doxorubicin toxicity, insulin resistance, heavy metal detoxification, hangovers, carbon monoxide poisioning, immunological reconstitution from HIV infection, and lately, influenza infections:

H5N1 influenza, or bird flu, is a lethal and potentially pandemic infection that produces the massive release of inflammatory mediators aptly called the "cytokine storm".  Other more common forms of influenza also act by triggering massive cytokine releases that inflame vulnerable lung tissue.  In early 2010, it was discovered that NAC offers dual protection against bird flu. It inhibits both virus replication and expression of pro-inflammatory molecules in cells infected with H5N1 virus, holding out the promise of effective protection in the event of a global avian flu pandemic. . . .

Influenza is a complex disease with multiple targets, most notably inflicting damage to lung tissue through extreme oxidative stress and inducing genes for a large variety of inflammatory mediators.  At the microscopic level the destruction is vivid. The influenza virus causes such intracellular turmoil that the term "cell boiling" has been used to describe the devastation.  But pretreatment of cells with NAC significantly offsets these effects, reducing the oxidative and inflammatory burden within lung tissue through multiple mechanisms.  (Life Extension Magazine, "The Overlooked Compound that Saves Lives", Julius Goepp, MD, May 2010, p. 67)

Effective dosage appears to be about 600 to 1,800 mg per day. Medical theorist Mark F. McCarty suggests that NAC at doses of 600 mg twice daily may significantly reduce the risk of a devastating bout of influenza. (ibid. p.69)

Incidentally, milk thistle extract is another substance that is used to treat toxin induced liver damage which can be caused by disease, mushroom poisoning, scorpion stings, snakebites, etc. http://www.umm.edu/altmed/articles/milk-thistle-000266.htm ;  (  http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/cam/milkthistle/Patient/page2 . It is also used to flatten out post-meal blood sugar spikes.
(more info on antidotes: http://itrcenvis.nic.in/plants.aspx ; http://www.physicianbyte.com/snaCon_SnakeVenomNeutralization_Antony.aspx ;

"a topically applied supersaturated solution of  zinc gluconate to immediately terminate the sting of yellow jackets, bees, wasps, scorpions, and Portuguese man-of-wars. It quickly heals brown recluse spider bites. . . . It clearly has general anti venom properties." It has also been used to treat snake bites in dogs and horses.  ( Life Extension Magazine Vol. 20, No.12 December 2014 "Zinc Lozenges For the Common Cold    Why Did It Take 30 Years?", George Eby,  p. 70-78;   http://health.lef.org/LECMS/Zmags.aspx?pid=76bbb929&source=CVM400E ;    http://coldcure.com/ ,  http://chemsavers.com/ )

Curcumin (turmeric)

Curcumin is also useful:

 "Curcumin ramps up liver detoxifying enzymes." (sidebar) http://www.lef.org/magazine/mag2012/aug2012_Safely-Manage-Joint-Inflammation_02.htm 


"Curcumin suppression of cytokine release and cytokine storm. A potential therapy for patients with Ebola and other severe viral infections",  In Vivo 2015 Jan-Feb;29(1):1-4.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25600522   From the Abstract: 

Curcumin blocks cytokine release, most importantly the key pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α. The suppression of cytokine release by curcumin correlates with clinical improvement in experimental models of disease conditions where a cytokine storm plays a significant role in mortality.

Monolaurin (and BHA, BHT)

Monolaurin  (glyceryl laurate, monolaurylglycerin) is a mono-glyceride (an ester of lauric acid and glycerin). As a dietary supplement it is of interest for its anti-viral and anti-microbial activity.

You have probably heard of tri-glycerides (from blood tests), and mon- and di- glycerides (from food labels) These are all esters of fatty acids and glycerin. Glycerin can bind with a maximum three fatty acids per molecule. Monolaurin is a combination of one lauric acid molecule and one glycerin molecule and so it is a "mono-glyceride".  It has greater antiviral activity than lauric acid alone.  Lauric acid is a medium length, 12-carbon atom fatty acid. It occurs naturally in coconut oil, human breast milk, butter and heavy cream. Commercially, it is used in foods and cosmetics. 

Monolaurin disrupts the envelope functions of many lipid-coated ("enveloped") viruses and the membranes of Gram positive bacteria. Some of the viruses include the following: HIV-1, HIV+, measles, Herpes simplex-1, Herpes simplex-2, Herpes viridae (all), Hepatitus B, C, Human lymphotropic viruses (type 1),Vesicular stomatitis virus, Visna virus, Cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr  (EBV), influenza,  Pneumonovirus, Sarcoma virus, Syncytial virus (RSV), respiratory tract viruses, SARS type virus, Rubeola, Newcastle's, and Coronavirus.

Monolaurin is not effective against "naked" viruses such as polio, encephalitis virus, coxsachie, pox, rhino, and rota viruses.

Monolaurin is also effective at disrupting membrane functions of bacteria that stain Gram-positive. This is important because:

"Most pathogens in humans are Gram-positive organisms. In the classical sense, six Gram-positive genera are typically pathogenic in humans. Two of these, Streptococcus and Staphylococcus, are cocci (sphere-shaped bacteria). The remaining organisms are bacilli (rod-shaped bacteria) and can be subdivided based on their ability to form spores. The non-spore formers are Corynebacterium and Listeria (a coccobacillus), whereas Bacillus and Clostridium produce spores." http://laboratory-testing.org/gram-positive-bacteria/

Additionally:

"A number of fungi, yeast, and protozoa are also inactivated or killed by monolaurin. The fungi include several species of ringworm (Isaacs et al 1991). The yeast reported to be affected is Candida albicans (Isaacs et al 1991) The protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia is killed by monoglycerides from hydrolyzed human milk (Hemell et al 1986, Reiner et al 1986, Crouch et al 1991, Isaacs et al 1991). Chlamydia trachomatis is inactivated by monolaurin (Bergsson et al 1998). Hydrogels containing monocaprin/monolaurin are potent in vitro inactivators of sexually transmitted viruses such as HSV-2 and HIV-1 and bacteria such as Neisserian gonorrhea (Thormar 1999)." ("A Review of Monolaurin and Lauric Acid - Natural Virucidal and Bactericidal Agents", Shari Lieberman, Ph.D., C.N.S., F.A.C.N., Mary G. Enig, Ph.D., C.N.S., M.A.C.N., and Harry G. Preuss, M.D., C.N.S., M.A.C.N. Alternative & Complementary Therapies—December 2006 (310- 314) ) http://www.easihealth.co.za/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/downloads/2011/02/trials/Monolaurin.pdf

The same reference also lists monolaurin's effectivity against the following:

Gram-negative organisms
Chlamydia trachomatis
Helicobacter pylorus
Salmonella typhimurium
Vibrio parahaemolyticus
Others if used concurrently with a chelator

Yeasts, Fungi and Molds
Aspergillus niger
Penicillium citrinum
Candida utilis and C. albicans
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Several species of Ringworm

Monolaurin is also effective against gonorrhea, MRSA, reduces toxicity of Bacillus anthracis,  is effective against toenail fungus, and some forms of autism.

There are also some initial indications/expectations that monolaurin may be effective against the ebola virus:

 "(Ebola) filoviruses are lipid-enveloped viruses that contain a lipid bilayer coat that protects their genome and helps to facilitate entry into the host cell. Filoviruses are lipid-enveloped viruses that have up to 90% clinical fatality and include Marbug (MARV) and Ebola (EBOV).  VP40 (ebola) has been shown to bind anionic lipid membranes".  ( Yuan, J., Zhang, Y., Li, J., Zhang, Y., Wang, L. F., and Shi, Z. (2012). "Serological evidence of ebolavirus infection in bats", China. Virol. J. 9, 236)

http://blog.drbrownstein.com/what-can-you-do-to-preventtreat-ebola/  

Similar considerations apply to the Zika virus:

"The Zika virus belongs to the Flaviviridae family and the Flavivirus genus, and is thus related to the dengue, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, and West Nile viruses. Like other flaviviruses, Zika virus is enveloped . . . ."    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zika_virus   

The Zika virus is transmitted primarily by mosquitos, and so the current approach for wide-area control is the use of aerial pesticides.  With these, however,  there is an increased risk that exposure to these pesticides can result in neurological and behavioral disorders in human infants -the very thing that Zika control was intended to prevent.
See also: http://www.ppt-health.com/monolaurin/list-of-illnesses-monolaurin-works-on/  

Incidentally, there is evidence that measles vaccines can have adverse side-effects and may even produce a worse form of measles::

"...the window of vulnerability of an infant may be even greater in vaccinated women than in with women with natural measles infection." (The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 79(5), 2008, pp. 787-792)
 

 JAMA Aug. 22, 1980, vol. 244, p. 804, Vincent Fulginiti and Ray Helfer.  http://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/article-abstract/371258  
Abstract
The history of killed and live measles vaccine administration and exposure to natural disease is detailed in four adolescent siblings over a 16-year period. In two of these siblings, atypical measles developed 16 years after killed measles virus vaccine was administered, despite intercurrent doses of live measles virus vaccine.

Additionally

"Administration of KMV (killed measles vaccine) apparently set in motion an aberrant immunologic response that not only failed to protect children against natural measles, but resulted in heightened susceptibility." (p. 804). The authors indicate that such children can come down with "an often severe, atypical form of measles. Atypical measles is characterized by fever, headache... and a diverse rash (which)... may consist of a mixture of macules, papules, vesicles, and pustules... "

_____

A Herxheimer ("die off" or "immune cascade") reaction might occur upon initial use of monolaurin, especially in chronically unhealthy people:

"The treatment of many bacterial infections provokes a Herxheimer reaction. Herxing was originally observed in patients with acute infections such as syphilis who received mercury treatment (a weak antibiotic). The immune system response to acute infection is sometimes referred to as the immune cascade. For example, in the infamous anthrax attacks people died because by the time they got to hospital the anthrax organisms had multiplied to the point where killing them also killed the patient.

. . . As the immune system tries to clear up this cellular debris, it releases a host of inflammatory molecules which, along with the toxins released by the bacteria as they die, cause a rise in symptoms in the area in which the bacteria are being killed. . . . The intensity of the reaction is thought to be dependent on many factors; location of the inflammation, appropriateness of the antibiotic/s, the antibiotic dosage, the presence of immunosuppressants, the level of 25 hydroxyvitamin-D and the prophylactic dosing schedule of Benicar used to interrupt the inflammatory cascade." https://chronicillnessrecovery.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=161

A therapeutic dose of monolaurin is generally 1800 mg to 2400 mg per day, and is usually taken as the need arises.  It is generally free of side-effects, does not kill beneficial intestinal bacteria, nor increase resistance of organisms to antibiotics. For some types of infections, it must be taken long-term. I have had good results with Ultimate Monolaurin and Lauricidin® .

Also, monolaurin is sometimes popularly used with olive leaf extract and oil of oregano.

Links:

"Monolaurin – A Natural Immune Boosting Powerhouse", Byron J. Richards (October 2008)  http://www.wellnessresources.com/tips/articles/monolaurin_a_natural_immune_boosting_powerhouse/

"Many of the types of viruses monolaurin helps are those that can be chronic low grade infections that deplete energy on a regular basis and flare up when you are stressed or down.  If you have ever had a bad bug and never really got your energy back then monolaurin may help your immune system clean up the problem – even years later.  Many find it useful for recurring mouth sores that are herpes-based problems."

_____

"In vitro Effects of Monolaurin Compounds on Enveloped RNA and DNA Viruses", John C. Hierholzer, Jon J. Kabara (1982) http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1745-4565.1982.tb00429.x/abstract

"Monolaurin alone and monolaurin with tert-butylhydroxyanisole (BHA), methylparaben, or sorbic acid were tested for in vitro virucidal activity against 14 human RNA and DNA enveloped viruses in cell culture. At concentrations of 1% additive in the reaction mixture for 1 h at 23°C, all viruses were reduced in infectivity by >99.9%. Monolaurin with BHA was the most effective virucidal agent in that it removed all measurable infectivity from all of the viruses tested. The compounds acted similarly on all the viruses and reduced infectivity by disintegrating the virus envelope."

Note that this was an "in glass" (test tube) study. BHA (and BHT, butylated hydroxytoluene) are commonly used commercial antioxidants. They are typically added to food or the packaging material. They also have industrial uses.

"Butylated hydroxyanisoles for the treatment of retroviral diseases" (1991) http://www.freepatentsonline.com/4992475.pdf

The BHT Book A Practical Guide to Resolving Viral Disease, Steven Wm. Fowkes (2011)  http://www.projectwellbeing.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/02/BHTbook-StevenWmFowkes-100903.pdf

"Food grade chemicals for use in designing food preservative systems", http://triscience.com/Acid/food-grade-chemicals-for-use-in-designing-food-preservative-systems/doculite_view

"Although monolaurin (Lauricidin) is a Generally Recognized As Safe chemical, its use as part of a preservative system is new. Comparisons of its germicidal activity by investigators have shown it to be more effective than proprionates, benzoates and even sorbic acid. The common antioxidants, tert-butylhydroxytoluene (Bht) or tert-butylhydroxyanisole (Bha), have been shown since 1967 to affect a number of different microorganisms, including viruses. The chelator ethylenediamineacetate (Edta) has weak biocidal activity on its own but can potentiate the effect of the first 2 biocidal agents, particularly against gram-negative bacteria. The 3 common food chemicals therefore become part of a preservative system."

"New Antiviral Agents" (1990) http://www.freepatentsonline.com/EP0482071.pdf

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17966176

"Previous reports have shown various fatty acids and fatty acid derivatives to display an antiviral activity. Lauric acid and monolaurin are effective at inactivating HIV, measles, herpes simplex virus, vesicular somatitis, visna virus, and CMV." ("An examination of the medicinal potential of Scaevola spinescens: Toxicity, antibacterial, and antiviral activities",
Ian E. Cock1, and Liisa Kukkonen" Pharmacognosy Res. 2011 Apr-Jun; 3(2): 85–94.      http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3129029/ )

_____

"Coconut oil in Health and Disease: Its and monolaurin's Potential as Cure for HIV/AIDS", Dr. Conrado S. Dayrit (2000) http://www.coconutresearchcenter.org/article10526.pdf

"In a series of papers published in the 70s, Jon J Kabara et al (6-10) and other workers studied the anti-microbial activity of various fatty acids. They found that the medium chain fatty acids (MCF A) with 6 to 12 carbons, possessed significant activity against gram positive bacteria, but not against gram negatives; they were also active against lipid coated viruses as well as fungi and protozoa. Saturated fatty acids, longer than 14 carbons long had no such activity. And of the MCFA, lauric acid (CI2:0) was most potent, particularly in its monoglyceride form (monolaurin); . . .

This initial trial confirmed the anecdotal reports that coconut oil does have an anti-viral effect and can beneficially reduce the viral load of HIV patients. The positive anti-viral action was seen not only with the monoglyceride of lauric acid but with coconut oil itself. This indicates that coconut oil is metabolized to monoglyceride forms of C-8, C-IO, C- 12 to which it must owe its antipathogenic activity.

More and longer therapies using monolaurin will have to be designed and done before the defmitive [sic] role of such coco products can be determined. With such products, the outlook for more efficacious and cheaper anti HIV therapy is improved."

Related: Why people are cautious about vaccinations:

http://www.livescience.com/27493-narcolepsy-swine-flu-vaccine.html  

http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Narcolepsy+may+be+rooted+in+the+immune+system%3a+assault+on+brain+cells...-a0356580453

"Neurological and autoimmune disorders after vaccination against pandemic influenza A (H1N1) with a monovalent adjuvanted vaccine: population based cohort study in Stockholm, Sweden"     http://www.bmj.com/content/343/bmj.d5956  

"The flu vaccine may have a strange problem that US scientists can't fix",   http://www.businessinsider.com/annual-flu-shots-may-lower-effectiveness-2015-11  "Repeated vaccinations against the flu might make the newest shot less effective than the last . . ."

 Narcolepsy and H1N1 vaccine in Europe:   http://www.cdc.gov/vaccinesafety/Concerns/h1n1_narcolepsy_pandemrix.html  ;  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pandemrix  ; http://blogs.nature.com/news/2014/07/journal-retracts-paper-linking-vaccine-and-narcolepsy.html

"Abnormal measles-mumps-rubella antibodies and CNS autoimmunity in children with autism",  J Biomed Sci. 2002 Jul-Aug;9(4):359-64.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12145534  

"Stemming from this evidence, we suggest that an inappropriate antibody response to MMR, specifically the measles component thereof, might be related to pathogenesis of autism.
Copyright 2002 National Science Council, ROC and S. Karger AG, Basel "    

 "Serological association of measles virus and human herpes virus-6 with brain auto-antibodies in autism",  Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1998 Oct;89(1):105-8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9756729  )

"This study is the first to report an association between virus serology and brain autoantibody in autism; it supports the hypothesis that a virus-induced autoimmune response may play a causal role in autism."

"Hypothesis: conjugate vaccines may predispose children to autism spectrum disorders",  Med Hypotheses. 2011 Dec;77(6):940-7. doi: 10.1016/j.mehy.2011.08.019. Epub 2011 Oct 10.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21993250

"Abstract

The first conjugate vaccine was approved for use in the US in 1988 to protect infants and young children against the capsular bacteria Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). Since its introduction in the US, this vaccine has been approved in most developed countries, including Denmark and Israel where the vaccine was added to their national vaccine programs in 1993 and 1994, respectively. There have been marked increases in the reported prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) among children in the US beginning with birth cohorts in the late 1980s and in Denmark and Israel starting approximately 4-5 years later. Although these increases may partly reflect ascertainment biases, an exogenous trigger could explain a significant portion of the reported increases in ASDs. It is hypothesized here that the introduction of the Hib conjugate vaccine in the US in 1988 and its subsequent introduction in Denmark and Israel could explain a substantial portion of the initial increases in ASDs in those countries. The continuation of the trend toward increased rates of ASDs could be further explained by increased usage of the vaccine, a change in 1990 in the recommended age of vaccination in the US from 15 to 2 months, increased immunogenicity of the vaccine through changes in its carrier protein, and the subsequent introduction of the conjugate vaccine for Streptococcus pneumoniae. Although conjugate vaccines have been highly effective in protecting infants and young children from the significant morbidity and mortality caused by Hib and S. pneumoniae, the potential effects of conjugate vaccines on neural development merit close examination. Conjugate vaccines fundamentally change the manner in which the immune systems of infants and young children function by deviating their immune responses to the targeted carbohydrate antigens from a state of hypo-responsiveness to a robust B2 B cell mediated response. This period of hypo-responsiveness to carbohydrate antigens coincides with the intense myelination process in infants and young children, and conjugate vaccines may have disrupted evolutionary forces that favored early brain development over the need to protect infants and young children from capsular bacteria."  

"Hepatitis B vaccination of male neonates and autism diagnosis, NHIS1997-2002",  J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2010;73(24):1665-77. doi: 10.1080/15287394.2010.519317. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21058170  )

"Abstract

Universal hepatitis B vaccination was recommended for U.S. newborns in 1991; however, safety findings are mixed. The association between hepatitis B vaccination of male neonates and parental report of autism diagnosis was determined. This cross-sectional study used weighted probability samples obtained from National Health Interview Survey 1997-2002 data sets. Vaccination status was determined from the vaccination record. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds for autism diagnosis associated with neonatal hepatitis B vaccination among boys age 3-17 years, born before 1999, adjusted for race, maternal education, and two-parent household. Boys vaccinated as neonates had threefold greater odds for autism diagnosis compared to boys never vaccinated or vaccinated after the first month of life. Non-Hispanic white boys were 64% less likely to have autism diagnosis relative to nonwhite boys. Findings suggest that U.S. male neonates vaccinated with the hepatitis B vaccine prior to 1999 (from vaccination record) had a threefold higher risk for parental report of autism diagnosis compared to boys not vaccinated as neonates during that same time period. Nonwhite boys bore a greater risk."  

 "Immunological findings in autism",  Int Rev Neurobiol. 2005;71:317-41. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16512356  )

"Abstract

The immunopathogenesis of autism is presented schematically in Fig. 1. Two main immune dysfunctions in autism are immune regulation involving pro-inflammatory cytokines and autoimmunity. Mercury and an infectious agent like the measles virus are currently two main candidate environmental triggers for immune dysfunction in autism. . . . . Studies showing elevated brain specific antibodies in autism support an autoimmune mechanism. . . . . Viruses may initiate the process but the subsequent activation of cytokines is the damaging factor associated with autism. Virus specific antibodies associated with measles virus have been demonstrated in autistic subjects. Environmental exposure to mercury is believed to harm human health possibly through modulation of immune homeostasis. A mercury link with the immune system has been postulated due to the involvement of postnatal exposure to thimerosal, a preservative added in the MMR vaccines. The occupational hazard exposure to mercury causes edema in astrocytes and, at the molecular level, the CD95/Fas apoptotic signaling pathway is disrupted by Hg2+. Inflammatory mediators in autism usually involve activation of astrocytes and microglial cells. Proinflammatory chemokines (MCP-1 and TARC), and an anti-inflammatory and modulatory cytokine, TGF-beta1, are consistently elevated in autistic brains. In measles virus infection, it has been postulated that there is immune suppression by inhibiting T-cell proliferation and maturation and downregulation MHC class II expression. Cytokine alteration of TNF-alpha is increased in autistic populations. Toll-like-receptors are also involved in autistic development. High NO levels are associated with autism. Maternal antibodies may trigger autism as a mechanism of autoimmunity. MMR vaccination may increase risk for autism via an autoimmune mechanism in autism. MMR antibodies are significantly higher in autistic children as compared to normal children, supporting a role of MMR in autism. Autoantibodies (IgG isotype) to neuron-axon filament protein (NAFP) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) are significantly increased in autistic patients (Singh et al., 1997). Increase in Th2 may explain the increased autoimmunity, such as the findings of antibodies to MBP and neuronal axonal filaments in the brain. There is further evidence that there are other participants in the autoimmune phenomenon. (Kozlovskaia et al., 2000). The possibility of its involvement in autism cannot be ruled out. Further investigations at immunological, cellular, molecular, and genetic levels will allow researchers to continue to unravel the immunopathogenic mechanisms' associated with autistic processes in the developing brain. This may open up new avenues for prevention and/or cure of this devastating neurodevelopmental disorder."  

"Pregnancy, Immunity, Schizophrenia, and Autism",  Paul H. Patterson  (Engineering & Science, No. 3, 2006 p. 21 ; http://www.cco.caltech.edu/~phplab/images/whatwedo/EngSci31006.pdf  
 

"The flu vaccine has been recommended routinely to pregnant women in the United States since 1957. The official policy of the Centers for Disease Control states that “administration of vaccines to women seeking prenatal care is an opportunity for preventative intervention that should not be wasted.” Now you might say, “Well, of course, you don’t want to get the flu if you’re pregnant!” But remember that double-stranded RNA experiment—we activated the immune system, and it caused all these downstream effects on the fetus. And what does a vaccination do? It activates the immune system. That’s the point of vaccination. In practice, not all pregnant women receive flu shots, and I think that universal vaccination of pregnant women could get us into a whole new set of problems. I’m hoping, therefore, that a way will be found to intervene somehow and repair the damage or reregulate the immune system. This mouse model is an excellent place to start."

"Brain IL-6 elevation causes neuronal circuitry imbalances and mediates autism-like behaviors", Hongen Wei  Kathryn K. Chadman , Daniel P. McCloskey , Ashfaq M. Sheikh , Mazhar Malik  W. Ted Brown , Xiaohong Li   http://vaccinepapers.org/wp-content/uploads/Brain-IL-6-elevation-causes-neuronal-circuitry-imbalances-and-mediates-autism-like-behaviors.pdf    

"Immune aberrations consistent with a dysregulated immune response have been reported in autistic children. . . . These findings suggest that IL-6 elevation in the brain could mediate autistic-like behaviors, possibly through the imbalances of neural circuitry and impairments of synaptic plasticity."


"Do aluminum vaccine adjuvants contribute to the rising prevalence of autism?", J Inorg Biochem. 2011 Nov;105(11):1489-99. doi: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2011.08.008. Epub 2011 Aug 23.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22099159  

"Abstract

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are serious multisystem developmental disorders and an urgent global public health concern. Dysfunctional immunity and impaired brain function are core deficits in ASD. Aluminum (Al), the most commonly used vaccine adjuvant, is a demonstrated neurotoxin and a strong immune stimulator. Hence, adjuvant Al has the potential to induce neuroimmune disorders. When assessing adjuvant toxicity in children, two key points ought to be considered: (i) children should not be viewed as "small adults" as their unique physiology makes them much more vulnerable to toxic insults; and (ii) if exposure to Al from only few vaccines can lead to cognitive impairment and autoimmunity in adults, is it unreasonable to question whether the current pediatric schedules, often containing 18 Al adjuvanted vaccines, are safe for children? By applying Hill's criteria for establishing causality between exposure and outcome we investigated whether exposure to Al from vaccines could be contributing to the rise in ASD prevalence in the Western world. Our results show that: (i) children from countries with the highest ASD prevalence appear to have the highest exposure to Al from vaccines; (ii) the increase in exposure to Al adjuvants significantly correlates with the increase in ASD prevalence in the United States observed over the last two decades (Pearson r=0.92, p<0.0001); and (iii) a significant correlation exists between the amounts of Al administered to preschool children and the current prevalence of ASD in seven Western countries, particularly at 3-4 months of age (Pearson r=0.89-0.94, p=0.0018-0.0248). The application of the Hill's criteria to these data indicates that the correlation between Al in vaccines and ASD may be causal. Because children represent a fraction of the population most at risk for complications following exposure to Al, a more rigorous evaluation of Al adjuvant safety seems warranted."



 Aluminum Vaccine Adjuvants: Are they Safe?",   Curr Med Chem. 2011;18(17):2630-7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21568886 

"Abstract

Aluminum is an experimentally demonstrated neurotoxin and the most commonly used vaccine adjuvant. Despite almost 90 years of widespread use of aluminum adjuvants, medical science's understanding about their mechanisms of action is still remarkably poor. There is also a concerning scarcity of data on toxicology and pharmacokinetics of these compounds. In spite of this, the notion that aluminum in vaccines is safe appears to be widely accepted. Experimental research, however, clearly shows that aluminum adjuvants have a potential to induce serious immunological disorders in humans. In particular, aluminum in adjuvant form carries a risk for autoimmunity, long-term brain inflammation and associated neurological complications and may thus have profound and widespread adverse health consequences. In our opinion, the possibility that vaccine benefits may have been overrated and the risk of potential adverse effects underestimated, has not been rigorously evaluated in the medical and scientific community. We hope that the present paper will provide a framework for a much needed and long overdue assessment of this highly contentious medical issue."

  "Biopersistence and brain translocation of aluminum adjuvants of vaccines."  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25699008  

"We previously showed that poorly biodegradable aluminum-coated particles injected into muscle are promptly phagocytosed in muscle and the draining lymph nodes, and can disseminate within phagocytic cells throughout the body and slowly accumulate in brain. This strongly suggests that long-term adjuvant biopersistence within phagocytic cells is a prerequisite for slow brain translocation and delayed neurotoxicity. "  ( https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jsDKP9rXLkg&feature=youtu.be&t=42m44s    (consequential effects of aluminum in vaccines

"The Effect of Aluminum in Vaccines on Humans . . ."  Dr. Chris Shaw http://youtu.be/HK-93SHnTFk  

Aluminum and Glyphosate Can Synergistically Induce Pineal Gland Pathology: Connection to Gut Dysbiosis and Neurological Disease”, Agricultural Sciences, 2015, 6, 42-70, Stephanie Seneff, Nancy Swanson, Chen Li;  DOI: 10.4236/as.2015.61005 http://file.scirp.org/pdf/AS_2015011220442124.pdf  , http://www.scirp.org/Journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=53106  

 "Abstract

Many neurological diseases, including autism, depression, dementia, anxiety disorder and Parkinson’s disease, are associated with abnormal sleep patterns, which are directly linked to pineal gland dysfunction. The pineal gland is highly susceptible to environmental toxicants. Two pervasive substances in modern industrialized nations are aluminum and glyphosate, the active ingredient in the herbicide, Roundup®. In this paper, we show how these two toxicants work synergistically to induce neurological damage. Glyphosate disrupts gut bacteria, leading to an overgrowth of Clostridium difficile. Its toxic product, p-cresol, is linked to autism in both human and mouse models. p-Cresol enhances uptake of aluminum via transferrin. Anemia, a result of both aluminum disruption of heme and impaired heme synthesis by glyphosate, leads to hypoxia, which induces increased pineal gland transferrin synthesis. Premature birth is associated with hypoxic stress and with substantial increased risk to the subsequent development of autism, linking hypoxia to autism. Glyphosate chelates aluminum, allowing ingested aluminum to bypass the gut barrier. This leads to anemia-induced hypoxia, promoting neurotoxicity and damaging the pineal gland. Both glyphosate and aluminum disrupt cytochrome P450 enzymes, which are involved in melatonin metabolism. Furthermore, melatonin is derived from tryptophan, whose synthesis in plants and microbes is blocked by glyphosate. We also demonstrate a plausible role for vitamin D3 dysbiosis in impaired gut function and impaired serotonin synthesis. This paper proposes that impaired sulfate supply to the brain mediates the damage induced by the synergistic action of aluminum and glyphosate on the pineal gland and related midbrain nuclei."

 "Autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (Shoenfeld’s syndrome): clinical and immunological spectrum."  Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2013 Apr;9(4):361-73. doi: 10.1586/eci.13.2 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23557271   

"Abstract

An adjuvant is a substance that enhances the antigen-specific immune response, induces the release of inflammatory cytokines, and interacts with Toll-like receptors and the NALP3 inflammasome. The immunological consequence of these actions is to stimulate the innate and adaptive immune response. The activation of the immune system by adjuvants, a desirable effect, could trigger manifestations of autoimmunity or autoimmune disease. Recently, a new syndrome was introduced, autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA), that includes postvaccination phenomena, macrophagic myofasciitis, Gulf War syndrome and siliconosis. This syndrome is characterized by nonspecific and specific manifestations of autoimmune disease. The main substances associated with ASIA are squalene (Gulf War syndrome), aluminum hydroxide (postvaccination phenomena, macrophagic myofasciitis) and silicone with siliconosis. Mineral oil, guaiacol and iodine gadital are also associated with ASIA."

"Aluminum Adjuvant Linked to Gulf War Illness Induces Motor Neuron Death in Mice", Michael S. Petrik, Margaret C. Wong, Rena C. Tabata, Robert F. Garry, and Christopher A. Shaw   https://link.springer.com/article/10.1385/NMM:9:1:83   (http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.568.9309&rep=rep1&type=pdf )

". . . Among the vaccine’s potentially toxic components are the adjuvants aluminum hydroxide and squalene. . . . Aluminum-treated groups also showed significant motor neuron loss (35%) and increased numbers of astrocytes (350%) in the lumbar spinal cord. The findings suggest a possible role for the aluminum adjuvant in some neurological features associated with GWI and possibly an additional role for the combination of adjuvants."

"The Foundation for Al Adjuvant Safety Is False"  http://vaccinepapers.org/the-foundation-for-al-adjuvant-safety-is-false/    

"It is not reasonable or scientific to use studies of ingested, water-soluble aluminum salts (like AlCl3 or Al-lactate) to establish a safe dose of injected aluminum adjuvant (comprising aluminum hydroxide/phosphate nanoparticles). The chemical forms and route of administration are different. It is well-established today that nanoparticles can have higher toxicity (and different mechanisms of toxicity) compared to soluble forms of the same material. . . .

Several studies clearly demonstrate that dosages much lower than 26 mg/kg/day are harmful, and they are presented below.

"Long-term Persistence of Vaccine-Derived Aluminum Hydroxide is Associated with Chronic Cognitive Dysfunction.",  J. Inorganic Biochemistry  Volume 103, Issue 11, November 2009, Pages 1571–1578   http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0162013409001895  

"Neurodevelopmental disorders following thimerosal-containing childhood immunizations: a follow-up analysis." Int J Toxicol. 2004 Nov-Dec;23(6):369-76 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15764492  

"It was determined that there were significantly increased odds ratios (ORs) for autism (OR = 1.8, p < .05), mental retardation (OR = 2.6, p < .002), speech disorder (OR = 2.1, p < .02), personality disorders (OR = 2.6, p < .01), and thinking abnormality (OR = 8.2, p < .01) adverse events reported to the VAERS [Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System ] following thimerosal-containing DTaP vaccines in comparison to thimerosal-free DTaP vaccines. Potential confounders and reporting biases were found to be minimal in this assessment of the VAERS. It was observed, even though the media has reported a potential association between autism and thimerosal exposure, that the other NDs [neurodevelopmental disorders] analyzed in this assessment of the VAERS had significantly higher ORs than autism following thimerosal-containing DTaP vaccines in comparison to thimerosal-free DTaP vaccines. The present study provides additional epidemiological evidence supporting previous epidemiological, clinical and experimental evidence that administration of thimerosal-containing vaccines in the United States resulted in a significant number of children developing NDs."

"Administration of thimerosal to infant rats increases overflow of glutamate and aspartate in the prefrontal cortex: protective role of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate."  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22015977  

 ". . .our data imply that neonatal exposure to thimerosal-containing vaccines might induce excitotoxic brain injuries, leading to neurodevelopmental disorders. DHEAS may partially protect against mercurials-induced neurotoxicity."


"A positive association found between thimerosal prevalence and childhood vaccination uptake across the U.S. population." J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2011;74(14):903-16. doi: 10.1080/15287394.2011.573736.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21623535 

"Abstract

The reason for the rapid rise of autism in the United States that began in the 1990s is a mystery. Although individuals probably have a genetic predisposition to develop 
autism, researchers suspect that one or more environmental triggers are also needed. One of those triggers might be the battery of vaccinations that young children receive. Using regression analysis and controlling for family income and ethnicity, the relationship between the proportion of children who received the recommended vaccines by age 2 years and the prevalence of autism (AUT) or speech or language impairment (SLI) in each U.S. state from 2001 and 2007 was determined. A positive and statistically significant relationship was found: The higher the proportion of children receiving recommended vaccinations, the higher was the prevalence of AUT or SLI. A 1% increase in vaccination was associated with an additional 680 children having AUT or SLI. Neither parental behavior nor access to care affected the results, since vaccination proportions were not significantly related (statistically) to any other disability or to the number of pediatricians in a U.S. state. The results suggest that although mercury has been removed from many vaccines, other culprits may link vaccines to autism. Further study into the relationship between vaccines and autism is warranted."


"B-Lymphocytes from a Population of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Their Unaffected Siblings Exhibit Hypersensitivity to Thimerosal" Journal of Toxicology Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 801517, 11 pages http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/801517  ,  http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jt/2013/801517/     Copyright © 2013 Martyn A. Sharpe et al.


"Abstract

The role of thimerosal containing vaccines in the development of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been an area of intense debate, as has the presence of mercury dental amalgams and fish ingestion by pregnant mothers. We studied the effects of thimerosal on cell proliferation and mitochondrial function from B-lymphocytes taken from individuals with autism, their nonautistic twins, and their nontwin siblings. Eleven families were examined and compared to matched controls. B-cells were grown with increasing levels of thimerosal, and various assays (LDH, XTT, DCFH, etc.) were performed to examine the effects on cellular proliferation and mitochondrial function. A subpopulation of eight individuals (4 ASD, 2 twins, and 2 siblings) from four of the families showed thimerosal hypersensitivity, whereas none of the control individuals displayed this response. The thimerosal concentration required to inhibit cell proliferation in these individuals was only 40% of controls. Cells hypersensitive to thimerosal also had higher levels of oxidative stress markers, protein carbonyls, and oxidant generation. This suggests certain individuals with a mild mitochondrial defect may be highly susceptible to mitochondrial specific toxins like the vaccine preservative thimerosal.


"Blood Levels of Mercury Are Related to Diagnosis of Autism: A Reanalysis of an Important Data Set", M. Catherine DeSoto, PhD, Robert T. Hitlan, PhD http://jcn.sagepub.com/content/22/11/1308.abstract

Abstract

The question of what is leading to the apparent increase in autism is of great importance. Like the link between aspirin and heart attack, even a small effect can have major health implications. If there is any link between autism and mercury, it is absolutely crucial that the first reports of the question are not falsely stating that no link occurs. We have reanalyzed the data set originally reported by Ip et al. in 2004 and have found that the original p value was in error and that a significant relation does exist between the blood levels of mercury and diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorder. Moreover, the hair sample analysis results offer some support for the idea that persons with autism may be less efficient and more variable at eliminating mercury from the blood.


"Thimerosal neurotoxicity is associated with glutathione depletion: protection with glutathione precursors." Neurotoxicology. 2005 Jan; 26(1):1-8 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15527868 

 Abstract

 Thimerosol is an antiseptic containing 49.5% ethyl mercury that has been used for years as a preservative in many infant vaccines and in flu vaccines. Environmental methyl mercury has been shown to be highly neurotoxic, especially to the developing brain. Because mercury has a high affinity for thiol (sulfhydryl (-SH)) groups, the thiol-containing antioxidant, glutathione (GSH), provides the major intracellular defense against mercury-induced neurotoxicity. Cultured neuroblastoma cells were found to have lower levels of GSH and increased sensitivity to thimerosol toxicity compared to glioblastoma cells that have higher basal levels of intracellular GSH. Thimerosal-induced cytotoxicity was associated with depletion of intracellular GSH in both cell lines. Pretreatment with 100 microM glutathione ethyl ester or N-acetylcysteine (NAC), but not methionine, resulted in a significant increase in intracellular GSH in both cell types. Further, pretreatment of the cells with glutathione ethyl ester or NAC prevented cytotoxicity with exposure to 15 microM Thimerosal. Although Thimerosal has been recently removed from most children's vaccines, it is still present in flu vaccines given to pregnant women, the elderly, and to children in developing countries. The potential protective effect of GSH or NAC against mercury toxicity warrants further research as possible adjunct therapy to individuals still receiving Thimerosal-containing vaccinations.

 

"Environmental mercury release, special education rates, and autism disorder: an ecological study of Texas", Health Place. 2006 Jun;12(2):203-9  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16338635  

"Abstract

 The association between environmentally released mercury, special education and autism rates in Texas was investigated using data from the Texas Education Department and the United States Environmental Protection Agency. A Poisson regression analysis adjusted for school district population size, economic and demographic factors was used. There was a significant increase in the rates of special education students and autism rates associated with increases in environmentally released mercury. On average, for each 1,000 lb of environmentally released mercury, there was a 43% increase in the rate of special education services and a 61% increase in the rate of autism. The association between environmentally released mercury and special education rates were fully mediated by increased autism rates. This ecological study suggests the need for further research regarding the association between environmentally released mercury and developmental disorders such as autism. These results have implications for policy planning and cost analysis.

 

"A case series of children with apparent mercury toxic encephalopathies manifesting with clinical symptoms of regressive autistic disorders", J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2007 May 15;70(10):837-51.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17454560 
   

“Abstract

Impairments in social relatedness and communication, repetitive behaviors, and stereotypic abnormal movement patterns characterize autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). It is clear that while genetic factors are important to the pathogenesis of ASDs, mercury exposure can induce immune, sensory, neurological, motor, and behavioral dysfunctions similar to traits defining or associated with ASDs. The Institutional Review Board of the Institute for Chronic Illnesses (Office for Human Research Protections, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, IRB number IRB00005375) approved the present study. A case series of nine patients who presented to the Genetic Centers of America for a genetic/developmental evaluation are discussed. Eight of nine patients (one patient was found to have an ASD due to Rett's syndrome) (a) had regressive ASDs; (b) had elevated levels of androgens; (c) excreted significant amounts of mercury post chelation challenge; (d) had biochemical evidence of decreased function in their glutathione pathways; (e) had no known significant mercury exposure except from Thimerosal-containing vaccines/Rho(D)-immune globulin preparations; and (f) had alternate causes for their regressive ASDs ruled out. There was a significant dose-response relationship between the severity of the regressive ASDs observed and the total mercury dose children received from Thimerosal-containing vaccines/Rho (D)-immune globulin preparations. Based upon differential diagnoses, 8 of 9 patients examined were exposed to significant mercury from Thimerosal-containing biologic/vaccine preparations during their fetal/infant developmental periods, and subsequently, between 12 and 24 mo of age, these previously normally developing children suffered mercury toxic encephalopathies that manifested with clinical symptoms consistent with regressive ASDs. Evidence for mercury intoxication should be considered in the differential diagnosis as contributing to some regressive ASDs.


"Thimerosal exposure in infants and neurodevelopmental disorders: an assessment of computerized medical records in the Vaccine Safety Datalink",  J Neurol Sci. 2008 Aug 15;271(1-2):110-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jns.2008.04.002. Epub 2008 May 15.   http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18482737  

 Abstract

 The study evaluated possible associations between neurodevelopmental disorders (NDs) and exposure to mercury (Hg) from Thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCVs) by examining the automated Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD). A total of 278,624 subjects were identified in birth cohorts from 1990-1996 that had received their first oral polio vaccination by 3 months of age in the VSD. The birth cohort prevalence rate of medically diagnosed International Classification of Disease, 9th revision (ICD-9) specific NDs and control outcomes were calculated. Exposures to Hg from TCVs were calculated by birth cohort for specific exposure windows from birth-7 months and birth-13 months of age. Poisson regression analysis was used to model the association between the prevalence of outcomes and Hg doses from TCVs. Consistent significantly increased rate ratios were observed for autism, autism spectrum disorders, tics, attention deficit disorder, and emotional disturbances with Hg exposure from TCVs. By contrast, none of the control outcomes had significantly increased rate ratios with Hg exposure from TCVs. Routine childhood vaccination should be continued to help reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with infectious diseases, but efforts should be undertaken to remove Hg from vaccines. Additional studies should be conducted to further evaluate the relationship between Hg exposure and NDs.

"Induction of metallothionein in mouse cerebellum and cerebrum with low-dose thimerosal injection"  Cell Biol Toxicol. 2010 Apr;26(2):143-52. doi: 10.1007/s10565-009-9124-z. Epub 2009 Apr 9.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19357975  

“Abstract

 Thimerosal, an ethyl mercury compound, is used worldwide as a vaccine preservative. We previously observed that the mercury concentration in mouse brains did not increase with the clinical dose of thimerosal injection, but the concentration increased in the brain after the injection of thimerosal with lipopolysaccharide, even if a low dose of thimerosal was administered. Thimerosal may penetrate the brain, but is undetectable when a clinical dose of thimerosal is injected; therefore, the induction of metallothionein (MT) messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein was observed in the cerebellum and cerebrum of mice after thimerosal injection, as MT is an inducible protein. MT-1 mRNA was expressed at 6 and 9 h in both the cerebrum and cerebellum, but MT-1 mRNA expression in the cerebellum was three times higher than that in the cerebrum after the injection of 12 microg/kg thimerosal. MT-2 mRNA was not expressed until 24 h in both organs. MT-3 mRNA was expressed in the cerebellum from 6 to 15 h after the injection, but not in the cerebrum until 24 h. MT-1 and MT-3 mRNAs were expressed in the cerebellum in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, MT-1 protein was detected from 6 to 72 h in the cerebellum after 12 microg/kg of thimerosal was injected and peaked at 10 h. MT-2 was detected in the cerebellum only at 10 h. In the cerebrum, little MT-1 protein was detected at 10 and 24 h, and there were no peaks of MT-2 protein in the cerebrum. In conclusion, MT-1 and MT-3 mRNAs but not MT-2 mRNA are easily expressed in the cerebellum rather than in the cerebrum by the injection of low-dose thimerosal. It is thought that the cerebellum is a sensitive organ against thimerosal. As a result of the present findings, in combination with the brain pathology observed in patients diagnosed with autism, the present study helps to support the possible biological plausibility for how low-dose exposure to mercury from thimerosal-containing vaccines may be associated with autism.

 
"Vaccines and Autism" Bernard Rimland, PhD, Woody McGinnis, MD Autism Research Institute, San Diego, CA laboratory medicine  September 2002  number 9 volume 33  http://labmed.ascpjournals.org/content/33/9/708.full.pdf  

Conclusion

Depressed immunity, autoimmunity, and inflammatory activation are common features in autism. Impaired resistance to infection may predispose to chronic measles infection of the autistic gut by MMR vaccine. Thimerosal-containing vaccine during infancy may depress immunity and lower the threshold for chronic vaccinial measles infection. Thimerosal and MMR may induce autoimmunity to elements of the CNS individually or additively and thus contribute to the pathophysiology of autism. . . .Published science and clinical experience are converging rapidly to form a more accurate image of autism. We are learning that autism implies a physically ill child with associated immune, gut, and nutritional problems. Besides helping target biological interventions for autism, understanding the underlying physical problems enhances our grasp of the possible role of vaccines.

"Self-Organized Criticality Theory of Autoimmunity" ,  Ken Tsumiyama, Yumi Miyazaki, Shunichi Shiozawa, 2009DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0008382  http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0008382 (The Journal of Immunology, 2010, 184, 93.39 http://www.jimmunol.org/cgi/content/meeting_abstract/184/1_MeetingAbstracts/93.39 )

"Repeated immunization with antigen causes systemic autoimmunity in mice otherwise not prone to spontaneous autoimmune diseases. . . . Systemic autoimmunity appears to be the inevitable consequence of over-stimulating the host's immune ‘system’ by repeated immunization with antigen, to the levels that surpass system's self-organized criticality."

http://www.fda.gov/downloads/BiologicsBloodVaccines/Vaccines/ApprovedProducts/UCM101580.pdf  (page 11)  :

"Adverse events reported during post-approval use of Tripedia vaccine include idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, SIDS,anaphylactic reaction, cellulitis, autism, convulsion/grand mal convulsion, encephalopathy, hypotonia, neuropathy, somnolence
and apnea. Events were included in this list because of the seriousness or frequency of reporting." 


"Estimated Prevalence of Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities Following Questionnaire Changes in the 2014 National Health Interview Survey", Benjamin Zablotsky et al. (2015)  http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nhsr/nhsr087.pdf 

"The estimated prevalence of ASD [Autism Spectrum Disorder] based on 2014 data was 2.24%, a significant increase from the estimated annualized prevalence of 1.25% based on2011–2013 data. In contrast, the prevalence of other DD [Developmental Disorder] declined significantly from 4.84% based on 2011–2013 data to 3.57% based on 2014 data."

"Thimerosal Exposure and the Role of Sulfation Chemistry and Thiol Availability in Autism",  Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(8), 3771-3800; doi:10.3390/ijerph10083771, Janet K. Kern , Boyd E. Haley, David A. Geier, Lisa K. Sykes, Paul G. King and Mark R. Geier      http://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/10/8/3771   

 

 

Abstract

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurological disorder in which a significant number of the children experience a developmental regression characterized by a loss of previously acquired skills and abilities. Typically reported are losses of verbal, nonverbal, and social abilities. Several recent studies suggest that children diagnosed with an ASD have abnormal sulfation chemistry, limited thiol availability, and decreased glutathione (GSH) reserve capacity, resulting in a compromised oxidation/reduction (redox) and detoxification capacity. Research indicates that the availability of thiols, particularly GSH, can influence the effects of thimerosal (TM) and other mercury (Hg) compounds. TM is an organomercurial compound (49.55% Hg by weight) that has been, and continues to be, used as a preservative in many childhood vaccines, particularly in developing countries. Thiol-modulating mechanisms affecting the cytotoxicity of TM have been identified. Importantly, the emergence of ASD symptoms post-6 months of age temporally follows the administration of many childhood vaccines. The purpose of the present critical review is provide mechanistic insight regarding how limited thiol availability, abnormal sulfation chemistry, and decreased GSH reserve capacity in children with an ASD could make them more susceptible to the toxic effects of TM routinely administered as part of mandated childhood immunization schedules.

  

"A two-phase study evaluating the relationship between Thimerosal-containing vaccine administration and the risk for an autism spectrum disorder diagnosis in the United States",  Transl Neurodegener. 2013 Dec 19;2(1):25. doi: 10.1186/2047-9158-2-25,  Geier DA, Hooker BS, Kern JK, King PG, Sykes LK, Geier MR, 
 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24354891 


Abstract
BACKGROUND:

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is defined by standardized criteria of qualitative impairments in social interaction, qualitative impairments in communication, and restricted and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities. A significant number of children diagnosed with ASD suffer a loss of previously-acquired skills, which is suggestive of neurodegeneration or a type of progressive encephalopathy with an etiological pathogenic basis occurring after birth. To date, the etiology of ASD remains under debate, however, many studies suggest toxicity, especially from mercury (Hg), in individuals diagnosed with an ASD. The present study evaluated concerns about the toxic effects of organic-Hg exposure from Thimerosal (49.55% Hg by weight) in childhood vaccines by conducting a two-phased (hypothesis generating/hypothesis testing) study with documented exposure to varying levels of Thimerosal from vaccinations.

METHODS:

A hypothesis generating cohort study was undertaken to evaluate the relationship between exposure to organic-Hg from a Thimerosal-containing Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular-Pertussis (DTaP) vaccine in comparison to a Thimerosal-free DTaP vaccine administered, from 1998 through 2000, for the risk of ASD as reported in the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) database (phase I). A hypothesis testing case-control study was undertaken to evaluate the relationship between organic-Hg exposure from Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccines administered at specific intervals in the first six months of life among cases diagnosed with an ASD and controls born between 1991 through 1999 in the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) database (phase II).

RESULTS:

In phase I, it was observed that there was a significantly increased risk ratio for the incidence of ASD reported following the Thimerosal-containing DTaP vaccine in comparison to the Thimerosal-free DTaP vaccine. In phase II, it was observed that cases diagnosed with an ASD were significantly more likely than controls to receive increased organic-Hg from Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccine administered within the first, second, and sixth month of life.

CONCLUSIONS:

Routine childhood vaccination is an important public health tool to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with infectious diseases, but the present study provides new epidemiological evidence supporting an association between increasing organic-Hg exposure from Thimerosal-containing childhood vaccines and the subsequent risk of an ASD diagnosis.

 

"Altered urinary porphyrins and mercury exposure as biomarkers for autism severity in Egyptian children with autism spectrum disorder",   Khaled, E.M., Meguid, N.A., Bjųrklund, G. et al. Metabolic Brain Disease (2016). doi:10.1007/s11011-016-9870-6   13 July 2016
·
Abstract
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder that affects social, communication, and behavioral development. Recent evidence supported but also questioned the hypothetical role of compounds containing mercury (Hg) as contributors to the development of ASD. Results showed that children with ASD had significantly higher levels of Hg, Pb, and the porphyrins pentacarboxyporphyrin, coproporphyrin, precoproporphyrin, uroporphyrins, and hexacarboxyporphyrin compared to healthy controls and healthy siblings of the ASD children. . . . Mothers of ASD children showed a higher percentage of dental amalgam restorations compared to the mothers of healthy controls suggesting that high Hg levels in children with ASD may relate to the increased exposure to Hg from maternal dental amalgam during pregnancy and lactation. The results showed that the ASD children in the present study had increased blood Hg and Pb levels compared with healthy control children indicating that disordered porphyrin metabolism might interfere with the pathology associated with the autistic neurologic phenotype. 

"Temporal Association of Certain Neuropsychiatric Disorders Following Vaccination of Children and Adolescents: A Pilot Case–Control Study", Front. Psychiatry, 19 January 2017 , Douglas L. Leslie1, Robert A. Kobre,  Brian J. Richmand,  Selin Aktan Guloksuz, and James F. Leckman  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2017.00003  ;  http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fpsyt.2017.00003/full      
"Fever in pregnancy tied to higher risk of autism", Catharine Paddock PhD  (June 2017)  http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/317896.php  

In the journal Molecular Psychiatry, the researchers say that their findings support the idea that infection in pregnancy - and the way in which the immune system responds to it - may play a role in the development of some cases of autism .


(My thoughts on this: the purpose of a vaccination is to provoke an immune response.  It may be the response, not the vaccination itself, that leads to the development of some cases of autism. See Iodine-Autism.)


"Did Chinese scientists find autism’s missing puzzle piece?"  Healthcare in America, J.B. Handley, February 22, 2017   http://healthcareinamerica.us/did-chinese-scientists-find-autisms-missing-puzzle-piece-2d50be5b9122  

"Scientists appear to be far closer to explaining the mechanisms of action within the body that cause autism. Most of the research that has created this understanding has been published in the last 36 months, and largely from international scientists in Canada, France, Israel, and China. Four clear, replicable, and related discoveries explaining how autism is triggered are forming an undeniably clear picture of autism’s causation, and possibly ways to alleviate the symptoms, too."


 "Millions of Italians Protest Newly Proposed Vaccine Mandate" Vimeo, July 3, 2017  https://vimeo.com/224014038  (a powerful, informative Italian video. This is a good action example for complacent Americans. WAKE UP!  PROTEST!)



Straight-faced lies in congressional testimony by CDC official (Dr. Anne Schuchat) about vaccines and autism. Compare the content of the above abstracts from accredited, peer reviewed journals with the testimony shown in this video:  http://youtu.be/k9XRbjOQDvY?t=72


"CDC Whistle Blower admits MMR Vaccine causes Autism",  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q62DcaNs_0M  

"CDC Whistleblower Discloses Deception", https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qxr-cv-JuI8  

"Obama Grants Immunity to CDC Whistleblower on Measles Vaccine Link to Autism" ,  http://healthimpactnews.com/2015/obama-grants-immunity-to-cdc-whistleblower-on-measles-vaccine-link-to-autism/  
  

"Congress hears testimony of CDC scientist admitting cover up of vaccine autism links in black boys"
  http://www.sott.net/article/299585-Congress-hears-testimony-of-CDC-scientist-admitting-cover-up-of-vaccine-autism-links-in-black-boys  
  http://www.sott.net/article/284578-CDC-vaccine-fraud-340-risk-of-autism-hidden-from-public  

"Compulsory Vaccination in England" , William Tebb (1884)  http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=hvd.32044048098289;view=1up;seq=9   Historically, the lies of the CDC appear to be Standard Operating Procedure.



"VaxXed: the ABC News interview that Big Pharma didn't want you to see",  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tvcdh7KlgPI    

Presentations by VaxXed.com and others:
 "The Prosecutor Nico"       http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TJs2VzgBOVI  
"Colton in Utah"                   http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CHYmb9Hwj4A
"VAXXED TV Live Stream"  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KNPb0kbDAHQ
http://www.vaxxed.com/recent-shows/
https://www.periscope.tv/teamvaxxed/1yNGanlpMMgJj


"Former science chief: 'MMR fears coming true' ", by Sue Corrigan  (29 March 2016)  
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-376203/Former-science-chief-MMR-fears-coming-true.html#ixzz45AimGjOx    

"A former Government medical officer responsible for deciding whether medicines are safe has accused the Government of "utterly inexplicable complacency" over the MMR triple vaccine for children.
Dr Peter Fletcher, who was Chief Scientific Officer at the Department of Health, said if it is proven that the jab causes autism, "the refusal by governments to evaluate the risks properly will make this one of the greatest scandals in medical history".
He added that after agreeing to be an expert witness on drug-safety trials for parents' lawyers, he had received and studied thousands of documents relating to the case which he believed the public had a right to see.
He said he has seen a "steady accumulation of evidence" from scientists worldwide that the measles, mumps and rubella jab is causing brain damage in certain children."


"Merck Has Some Explaining To Do Over Its MMR Vaccine Claims",  Lawrence Solomon (2014) http://www.huffingtonpost.ca/lawrence-solomon/merck-whistleblowers_b_5881914.html    


"22 Medical Studies That Show Vaccines Can Cause Autism",  Arjun Walia  (2013)  http://www.activistpost.com/2013/09/22-medical-studies-that-show-vaccines.html  

"Boom—how and why the CDC can foist toxic vaccines on the American people", January 26, 2017,  From Kennedy’s video presentation, “7 Minutes on the CDC,” Anne Dachel  http://www.robeottbell.co
rtscm/government/robert-f-kennedy-jrs-devastating-quotes-on-vaccines-and-the-cdc-by-jon-rappoport/    

How this nefarious scheme works:
"Gas Light (known in the US as Angel Street) is a 1938 play by the British dramatist Patrick Hamilton. The play (and its film adaptations) gave rise to the term gaslighting with the meaning "a form of psychological abuse in which false information is presented to the victim with the intent of making him/her doubt his/her own memory and perception".  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gas_Light  

Are you being Gaslighted?   http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/power-in-relationships/200905/are-you-being-gaslighted  

The mass media goes along with this deception. They have not pointed out the discrepancy between the CDC's statements and those found in peer reviewed journals.  Likewise for California legislators.    Furthermore, some nursing colleges and hospitals are encouraging unethical and even illegal behaviors regarding vaccines and patient consent.  

"The Flu Vaccine War: Healthcare Workers Fight Back"
  http://healthimpactnews.com/2014/the-flu-vaccine-war-healthcare-workers-fight-back/  


"Student Who Refused to Lie About Vaccines and was Kicked out of Nursing School Fights Back with Lawsuit" http://healthimpactnews.com/2015/student-who-refused-to-lie-about-vaccines-and-was-kicked-out-of-nursing-school-fights-back-with-lawsuit/#sthash.pJJWOa7L.dpuf

http://www.washingtonpost.com/news/to-your-health/wp/2016/05/03/researchers-medical-errors-now-third-leading-cause-of-death-in-united-states/    (This does not inspire confidence in our healthcare system.)
_____

The Peanut Allergy Epidemic: What's Causing It and How to Stop It  (June  2011 ) by Heather Fraser  (peanut oil is used in making vaccines)

"Acellular pertussis vaccination enhances B. parapertussis colonization", synopsis by Alexia Karanikas  http://www.cidd.psu.edu/research/synopses/acellular-vaccine-enhancement-b.-parapertussis  ;  
( http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/13/146   )

In contrast, vaccination led to a 40-fold enhancement of B. parapertussis colonization in the lungs of mice. Though the mechanism behind this increased colonization was not specifically elucidated, it is speculated to involve specific immune responses skewed or dampened by the acellular vaccine, including cytokine and antibody production during infection. Despite this vaccine being hugely effective against B. pertussis, which was once the primary childhood killer, these data suggest that the vaccine may be contributing to the observed rise in whooping cough incidence over the last decade by promoting B. parapertussis infection. Highlighting the extreme consideration that should be exercised in future vaccine development, this work supports the use of vaccines that also target B. parapertussis as a potentially more efficient way to battle whooping cough.  

"Vaccine Fraud: The Polio Elimination By Vaccine Hoax",  http://naturalsociety.com/vaccine-fraud-the-polio-elimination-by-vaccine-hoax/   https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Twch-T-n8Ns  

http://www.supremecourt.gov/opinions/10pdf/09-152.pdf   " the Act eliminates manufacturer liability for a vaccine’s unavoidable, adverse side effects"

"Case Reports of 'Syndrome' Appearing After HPV Vaccination", Zosia Chustecka (September 18, 2015)  http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/851186  

Apparently, early autism symptoms can be reversed by deliberate renormalization of the immune system.  (See also Iodine and NAC above)

In my opinion, vaccinations should be a voluntary choice by a well-informed adult. Vaccinations should not be mindlessly and mandatorily imposed by legislators and medical committees who are in bed with the vaccine manufacturers.  Vaccines are clearly useful, but alternatives are useful and readily available too. People should be permitted to exercise their own well-informed judgement. And I believe it is a "Breach of Duty" for legislators and medical committees when they do not point out viable alternatives. Such a breach produces disrespect for the law, disrespect for legislators, mistrust for our medical and science institutions, and disrespect for law enforcement. Eventually this will result in wide-spread lawlessness, as people seek their own form of "justice".  See also Due Diligence.

My review of the literature suggests that the MMR vaccine does not actually cause autism. But there is a loose end here involving autoimmunity, signaling proteins, and immature immune systems, especially in malnourished moms-to-be and in young children. This in turn leads me to suspect iodine deficiencies, especially in the United States. Iodine is needed for infant brain development. It is also needed for proper functioning of the immune system. And it aids the body in ridding itself of toxic metals like lead, mercury, and aluminum.

The role of vitamin D3 deficiencies also needs to be investigated.

The CDC needs to be more helpful in finding and recommending workable solutions to the autism/vaccine controversy.  For instance, the CDC had an opportunity to intervene with a workable non-vaccine option in the Disneyland measles cases:

"Previous reports have shown various fatty acids and fatty acid derivatives to display an antiviral activity. Lauric acid and monolaurin are effective at inactivating HIV, measles,  herpes simplex virus, vesicular somatitis, visna virus, and CMV."    Pharmacognosy Research,  Ian E. Cock, and Liisa Kukkonen 2011 Apr-Jun; 3(2): 85–94. 

Instead, we have the CDC playing games of "exact words", legislators passing stupid, Draconian laws,  and various factions of the public screaming at each other, and pursuing blame and etiologies, not solutions.

Links:
"Exploring links among autism, the immune system and the brain"  http://www.ucdmc.ucdavis.edu/welcome/features/20080305_mindmatters_immune/    

"Why Does the Vaccine/Autism Controversy Live On?"  http://discovermagazine.com/2009/jun/06-why-does-vaccine-autism-controversy-live-on/

"Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine and Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Report From the New Challenges in Childhood Immunizations Conference Convened in Oak Brook, Illinois, June 12–13, 2000"  http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/pediatrics/107/5/e84.full.pdf    

http://www.greenmedinfo.com/anti-therapeutic-action/vaccination-hpv-gardisil   (Abstracts for HPV vaccination (Gardisil)  )

http://wakingtimesmedia.com/mercks-former-doctor-predicts-gardasil-will-become-greatest-medical-scandal-time/      

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1568997214000664   "On the relationship between human papilloma virus vaccine and autoimmune diseases"  Autoimmunity Reviews  Volume 13, Issue 7, July 2014, Pages 736–741

http://www.wakingtimes.com/2017/04/17/25-rules-disinformation/      

https://aeon.co/ideas/why-is-the-brain-prone-to-florid-forms-of-confabulation  

 "My people are destroyed for lack of knowledge."  Hosea 4:6
"Fools despise wisdom and instruction."  Proverbs 1:7

"For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and
unrighteousness of men, who suppress the truth in unrighteousness . . . .
There will be tribulation and distress for every soul of man who does
evil . . . but glory and honor and peace to every man who does good . . . ."
Romans 1:18, 2:9

Zinc

"How Low-Cost Zinc Helps Combat Deadly Immunosenescence", Heath Ramsey (2014) Life Extension Magazine Vol. 20, No.3 March 2014 p. 56-64 http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/a0f192fd#/a0f192fd/58   http://www.lef.org/Health-Wellness/LECMS/Zmags.aspx?pid=a0f192fd&source=CVC400E

"All about Supplements",  Life Extension Magazine, December 2006  http://www.lef.org/magazine/mag2006/dec2006_aas_01.htm 

One of zinc’s most important uses in recent years is reducing the severity and duration of colds. The common cold is caused by any one of more than 200 distinct viruses that target the respiratory tract. Zinc interferes with the viruses’ ability to attach to the surface of respiratory tract cells and reproduce, which may help prevent infections from taking hold and causing symptoms.

Numerous clinical trials, involving hundreds of child and adult patients, support the effectiveness of zinc lozenges in mitigating cold symptoms. One study concluded that lozenge use within 24 hours of the first onset of cold symptoms reduces the severity of symptoms, the duration of the illness, subsequent use of antibiotics to treat secondary symptoms, and overall incidence of colds per year.

. . . . Because supplemental zinc may help fight infection and heal wounds, zinc status is especially important for patients with conditions such as HIV infection. . . .

The common cold is usually caused by a rhinovirus. These are "naked", non-enveloped viruses ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhinovirus#Structure ). Monolaurin is useless against them. But zinc lozenges can be used to combat these viruses.  However, only the ionic form of zinc is effective (zinc acetate or gluconate, and without excipients like citric acid or chelators that are used to mask the unpleasant taste but bind to zinc in such a way as to make it useless against rhinoviruses.  There is a lot of confusion on this point.) See : Life Extension Magazine Vol. 20, No.12 December 2014 "Zinc Lozenges For the Common Cold    Why Did It Take 30 Years?", George Eby,  p. 70-78 and "Inconsistent Zinc Studies", p. 7-10;   (zinc acetate is the most effective form)   http://health.lef.org/LECMS/Zmags.aspx?pid=76bbb929&source=CVM400E

http://coldcure.com/html/flu.html

"Do zinc acetate lozenges cure the "flu"? Unfortunately no, but extremely high-dose oral zinc (not lozenges) might have benefit in very severe influenza. Zinc lozenges have little effect in treating influenza. However, good nutrition, including oral zinc dietary supplements, can help the immune system make recovery more efficient. Dosages of about 30 mg zinc 4 or 5 times a day for a week should be helpful. Vitamin B-6 and vitamin C might help also."

http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/ss05/zinc.html   (also interesting):

"Zinc also appears to play an important role in maintaining prostate health, but the precise function of zinc in the prostate is unknown. We are especially interested in how zinc deficiency or supplementation may influence the development of prostate cancer. Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in American men, and most elderly men have some abnormal prostate cells. Still, the cause of prostate cancer is unclear. Some of the risk factors include family history, age, and diet. The normal human prostate accumulates the highest level of zinc of any soft tissue in the body, but we don’t know why. However, cancerous prostates have much less zinc than normal prostates, and several studies have implicated impaired zinc status in the development and progression of prostate malignancy. There is also some evidence that increased dietary zinc is associated with a decrease in the incidence of prostate cancer. We have shown in various cell types that changes in intracellular zinc dramatically affects DNA damage and repair, and, hence, the risk of cancer. It is possible that dietary zinc deficiency will increase a man’s risk for oxidative DNA damage in prostate cells. Zinc supplementation strategies may not only aid in the prevention of cancer, but could also play an important role in limiting its malignancy. As an antioxidant and a component of many DNA repair proteins, zinc plays an important role in protecting DNA from damage. Zinc also functions as an anti-inflammatory agent and can promote programmed cell death, or apoptosis. Thus, zinc supplementation has the potential to target multiple points of the carcinogenesis cascade."

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zinc_acetate

http://chemsavers.com/http://www.amazon.com/   (Industrial and Scientific) ;

Olive Leaf Extract

Olive leaf extract is another natural compound that is effective against a broad spectrum of bad bacteria and viruses (including influenza). Note that it comes from the leaf, which is not usually eaten, instead of the olive itself. The references below were derived from a list pertaining to treatment of HIV/AIDS. Caution: A Herxheimer ("die off" or "immune cascade") reaction might occur upon initial use of Olive Leaf Extract.

"Olive Leaf Extract is a potent antimicrobial agent which has been reported very effective in reducing the total body viral load in HIV/AIDS patents. In anecdotal literature it has even improved patients to the point of being HIV negative! This supplement is most important and should be utilized by every HIV positive person. An excellent book on the subject is Olive Leaf Extract by Dr. Morton Walker, published by Kensington Books." http://www.rxalternativemedicine.com/articles/aids_hiv.html

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"Olive Leaf is used for the treatment of conditions associated with viruses, retroviruses, bacteria, or protozoa including influenza, the common cold, meningitis, Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV), encephalitis, herpes I and II, human herpes virus 6 and 7, shingles, HIV/AIDS, chronic fatigue and hepatitis B. It is also used for pneumonia, tuberculosis, gonorrhoea, malaria, dengue, bacteraemia, severe diarrhoea, blood poisoning and dental, ear, urinary tract and surgical infections. Other uses include hypertension, diabetes, allergic rhinitis, improving renal and digestive function and as a diuretic and antipyretic.

In animal experiments Olive Leaf preparations demonstrate multiple properties including antispasmodic, hypotensive, antiarrhythmic and hypoglycemic, bronchodilator, coronary dilator, antipyretic and diuretic properties. The active constituent oleuropein has bacteriostatic and antioxidant activity.

Olive Leaf may be beneficial in fungus and yeast infections, frequent colds, asthma, vaginal yeast infections, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, bacterial infections, herpes, AIDS, chronic fatigue, antioxidant, flu and colds."  http://www.xtend-life.com/popup/ingredients/Olive_Leaf.aspx   

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"Anti-HIV activity of olive leaf extract and synergism with HAART", Lee-Huang S, Huang P, Huang P; International Conference on AIDS (15th: 2004: Bangkok, Thailand). Int Conf AIDS. 2004 Jul 11-16; 15: abstract no. WePeA5651 http://www.iasociety.org/Abstracts/A2167252.aspx

Naproxen

Naproxen may have anti-viral activity against influenza. Specifically, it blocks the RNA-binding groove of the nucleoprotein of the virus, preventing formation of the ribonucleoprotein complex—thus taking the viral nucleoproteins out of circulation.  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naproxen    
Isoprinosine

"Isoprinosine is an immunomodulating drug intended to treat acute and chronic viral infections. Isoprinosine acts on the immune system to restore impaired cell-mediated immune response to its baseline level, in addition to enhancing humoral immune response. The drug also has a direct antiviral activity. Isoprinosine can reduce the intensity of symptoms and shorten the duration of the viral infection. In addition, the occurrence of complications is reduced and the frequency and severity of recurrences is minimised."   http://www.mecfsforums.com/wiki/Isoprinosine

Treating viral infections is not the only use for isoprinosine. From the patent:

This useful drug is STILL not available in the United States of America.   However, it can be ordered by individuals from online pharmacies.  If you have a flair for chemistry, you can even make it, or an analog of it.  The details are adequately described in the patent (http://www.freepatentsonline.com/3857940.pdf ).  It is made from N, N-dimethyl-amino-2-propanol,  acetamidobenzoic acid, and  inosine.  Several years ago I made a small batch of the stuff, but I used malic acid instead of  acetamidobenzoic acid (as per info in the patent). 

Recently, I came down with a really nasty illness of unknown origin. I used all the remedies shown here, but the illness was very tenacious and utterly ruined my voice. After a few days of being tired and annoyed, I went to my doctor, and he promptly sent me to the emergency room at a local hospital.  He was alarmed when he looked at my throat; it had the appearance of a diphtheria infection, which could have been life-threatening at that stage.  The ER doctor ran a "strep throat" test which came out negative.  He said I had "laryngitis" (gee, really?) and that it was likely caused by a viral infection (I now suspect it was enterovirus D68 (a non-enveloped virus) which was in the news at that time).  I was given a prescription for Amoxicillin and sent home.  (That brief experience with American healthcare cost me $300 out-of-pocket co-pay for the ER visit, and about $1700 for blood tests and other costs (mostly paid by my insurance). The medicine itself was $6.24. )  I was still hoarse and tired after completing the 10 day course of Amoxicillin.

Then I came across that batch of isoprinosine that I made years ago. I remembered it had antiviral properties. So I tried a half-teaspoon of the powder.  My symptoms cleared up noticeably, but returned if I did not keep using it. After a few weeks, the infection was mostly gone.

The patent claims it is effective against influenza:

Note that in these tests only inosine and dimethyaminoisopropanol were mixed together in water (without the acetamidobenzoic acid); HCl, a mineral acid, was substituted for the organic acid (as per the patent), and the solution was titrated to a neutral pH.  This is a really, really simple way to make a functional liquid equivalent of isoprinosine

Links:
http://www.freepatentsonline.com/3857940.pdf
http://curezone.com/diseases/cancer/isoprinosine.asp
 http://www.freepatentsonline.com/WO2010019059A1.pdf

HIV-AIDS

I am including the following little snippets, even though they are not relevant to influenza treatment, because some readers may be interested in additional aspects of treatments for HIV/AIDS. See also the entries above regarding Oive Leaf Extract, MonolaurinBHT, BHA, and Isoprinosine.  Far more complete coverage is available on the Internet and from local support groups.

Sulfur-containing amino acids:

"Improvement of immune functions in HIV infection by sulfur supplementation: Two randomized trials" , Raoul Breitkreutz · Nicole Pittack, Carl Thomas Nebe · Dieter Schuster · Jürgen Brust, Matthias Beichert · Volker Hack · Volker Daniel, Lutz Edler · Wulf Dröge (1999) http://w.aliveandwellsf.org/articles/breitkreutz_NAC_sulfur_supplementation.pdf

"Massive Loss of Sulfur in HIV Infection", Raoul Breitkreutz, Stefanie Holm, Nicole Pittack, Matthias Beichert, Alexander Babylon, Juni Yodoi, and Wulf Droge http://aliveandwellsf.org/articles/breitkreutz_sulfur_loss_2000.pdf

"N-Acetyl L-Cysteine", http://www.xtend-life.com/popup/ingredients/N-Acetyl_L-Cysteine.aspx

Curcumin

"Curcumin is a potent antioxidant and has been shown to be an inhibitor of HIV replication via several different mechanisms." http://www.lef.org/magazine/mag96/aug_new_therapies.htm

"Preliminary tests even indicate that curcumin can inhibit the replication of HIV, the virus that causes AIDS." http://www.wholehealthchicago.com/743/turmeric/

"Because turmeric is not particularly well absorbed when taken orally, you might want to look for products that combine it with bromelain, a group of protein-digesting enzymes found in the pineapple plant. The bromelain will enhance the absorption of the active compounds in turmeric. There are numerous commercial preparations combining bromelain and turmeric." http://www.wholehealthchicago.com/743/turmeric/

Bromelain

“A study was undertaken to identify natural substances which inhibited HIV proteases. Researchers focused on natural enzymes with low toxicity and high bioavailability. Compared to HIV protease inhibiting drugs nineteen natural products exhibited better activity; among the best was bromelain, it was also the most bioavailable.” http://healthyprotocols.com/2_bromelain.htm

The herb turmeric and bromelain (found in pineapple) acting together can decrease the HIV virus production in the body. http://www.herbs2000.com/disorders/hiv.htm

Bitter melon powder or extracts:

"According to a study published in British Journal of Pharmacology, bitter melon may offer alternative dietary strategies to decrease opportunistic infections and improve quality of life in People Living With HIV/AIDS (PLWHA).

The study is titled “Lipid lowering effects of Momordica charantia (Bitter Melon) in HIV-1-protease inhibitor-treated human hepatoma cells, HepG2.”

HIV-1 protease (HIV PR) is a retroviral aspartyl protease that is essential for the life-cycle of HIV, the retrovirus that causes AIDS. HIV PR cleaves newly synthesized poly-proteins at the appropriate places to create the mature protein components of an infectious HIV virion.

Without effective HIV PR, HIV virions remain un-infectious. Thus, mutation of HIV PR’s active site or inhibition of its activity disrupts HIV’s ability to replicate and infect additional cells, making HIV PR inhibition the subject of much pharmaceutical research.Hep G2 is a human liver carcinoma cell line." http://www.yorubareligion.org/_con/_rubric/detail.php?nr=1693&rubric=healing&PHPSESSID=gctr2lp5skkp7in629us5akvv0

_____

"One of the most important discoveries ever about Bitter Melon is that it may be able to help with treating infections caused by retrovirus. This has lead to several research projects into the possibility that the fruit juices contained in Bitter Melon may be able to slow down or even stop the HIV virus in the human body." http://crazyhorsesghost.hubpages.com/hub/Natural-Home-Remedies-Bitter-Melon

Reishi

"Laboratory studies demonstrate that active compounds from Reishi mushrooms act by inhibiting HIV enzymes called proteases: an action similar to that of some of the most successful anti-HIV drugs on the market. In this context Reishi mushrooms have been said to have "huge potential for HIV drug discovery." ". "Fight Immune Decline with Reishi", Walter Thompson, Life Extension Magazine (August 2014)  

Reshi is also effective for treating nightmares.

Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA)   

Cistanchi

Tinospora cordifolia

Fucoidan


Other links:

http://www.aidsmap.com/Survival-outside-the-body/page/1321278/    

"Synthesized compound flushes out latent HIV", Max McClure (2012) http://medicalxpress.com/news/2012-07-compound-flushes-latent-hiv.html

http://www.rexresearch.com/articles/oliveleaf.htm

"Method for producing extract of olive leaves", Leslie Nachman (1998) http://www.freepatentsonline.com/5714150.pdf

"The Health Benefits of Coconuts! ", Tom Mountford  (2005)  http://www.vaccinetruth.org/measles_in_the_gut.htm

Garlic

http://macedoniaonline.eu/fitness/alternative-medicine/garlic_antibiotic.htm

Guduchi

http://archive.ispub.com/journal/the-internet-journal-of-alternative-medicine/volume-6-number-2/
guduchi-tinospora-cordifolia-biological-and-medicinal-properties-a-review.html#sthash.L6HOggJN.dpbs

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2924974/

http://www.tjdb.org/123456789/9359/1/IJTK%203(3)%20257-270.pdf

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2924974/

http://www.niscair.res.in/sciencecommunication/ResearchJournals/rejour/ijtk/Fulltextsearch/2004/July%202004/
Tinospora%20cordifolia%20(Guduchi)%20a%20reservoir%20plant%20for%20therapeutic%20applications%20a%20review.htm

Black Elderberry Extract

Black Elderberry extract is reportedly useful against influenza and, in particular, the dreaded, highly contagious norovirus  (Norwalk virus).  The latter virus lacks a lipid envelope and consequently  infections are hard to treat with the methods described above.

Possible remedies for sluggish immune system response

In my youth The Formula worked quite well and quickly. I could be very sick, yet get well in almost exactly 24 hours. Nowadays, I hardly ever get sick with an influenza-like illness. But there was one exception that was noteworthy. Around the time of the SARS outbreak in Hong Kong and Toronto, I became very ill with something. I assumed it was the flu, and I used a version of The Formula to fight it. The whole episode lasted only six hours, but its intensity, misery, and speed were frightening. Months later, I described my symptoms to a friend. He said he apparently had the same thing, and ended up in the hospital for two days. His doctor thought he had SARS. That was also what I thought I had (but naw, not THAT, not in my town). The "lesson learned" was that I could still become rapidly ill with a disease, particularly if my body had not been exposed to it previously. I work at a hospital, and despite all the precautions and vaccinations, first time exposure to all kinds of nasty microbes is an ever present possibility. The Formula gives good immune system support for treatment of influenza, but one more thing seems to be needed:  a knowledge of what can undermine or slow down immune system response.

Factors that blunt immune system response are well-known:  nutritional deficiencies, age, chronic stress, inadequate sleep, depression, lack of exercise, physical injury, immunosupressant drugs, HIV, chemotherapy, etc. These are generally beyond the scope of this article. So here I'll try to address the more ordinary, common, easily correctable causes of a sluggish immune system response.

One of these is high blood  sugar:

"Numerous research studies have shown that increased sugar intake dramatically decreases your immune response.  Short-term hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) negatively affects all major components of your immunity. . . .Your white cells (leukocytes) are the primary mediators of the immune response.  Neutrophils are a type of white blood cell that is a first line of defense that swallows up (phagocytosis) foreign cells or bugs.  High sugar loads in the body turn off the neutrophils radar for several hours, depending on the amount of sugar ingested.  High glucose levels increase the risk of infections from Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus and E coli.  In diabetics, high glucose levels increase the risk of Klebsiella pneumoniae.  In healthy adults, eating simple carbohydrates like: glucose, fructose, sucrose, honey and orange juice significantly decreased the ability of the neutrophil to engulf bacteria.  The greatest effect was one to two  hours after the sugar consumption, but lasted for up to five hours before the fasting control values of normal white cell function returned to normal." (

"Sugar: Your Immune System and Heart Disease", Royce K. Bailey, M.D, http://www.parkridgecardiology.com/index.php/health-facts/health-nuggets/123-sugar-your-immune-system-and-heart-disease ; http://www.ajcn.org/content/26/11/1180.abstract

In another article about improving American health care, I have commented about how to use soluble fiber, green coffee bean extract, and benfotiamine,  milk thistle, and herbals to control blood sugar spikes. High blood sugar has several detrimental effects. Please consult that article.

_____

Another factor in slow immune system response is hypothyroidism: This is often a tricky disorder to diagnose. It causes such a wide variety of symptoms and problems that it usually gets diagnosed as something else, even though the underlying cause is actually hypothyroidism.  It is easily treated but is not quickly correctable:  prescription thyroid hormones (a natural combination of T3 and T4 thyroid hormones) usually take about 6 weeks to begin working in a perceptible way. The following two books are highly recommended  introductions to this perplexing but common disorder:

Hypothyroidism: the Unsuspected Illness (Broda Barnes, 1976)
Solved: The Riddle of Illness (Stephen Langer and James Scheer, 2006)

These books include lists of the many symptoms of hypothyroidism which are most useful in diagnosis.

Also, blood tests on the T3, T4, and TSH thyroid hormones can be definitive in diagnosing hypothyroidism, but more often, they are ambiguous and next to useless. The best indicator on a blood test is actually high fasting total cholesterol.

The High Cholesterol Thyroid Connection Undiagnosed Thyroid Disease May Be the Reason for Your High Cholesterol, Mary Shomon ( 2009),  http://thyroid.about.com/cs/symptomsproblems/a/cholesterol.htm  

"Hypothyroidism - Diagnosis", http://www.umm.edu/patiented/articles/how_serious_hypothyroidism_000038_6.htm

"Studies Show That TSH Is Unreliable in the Diagnosis of Hypothyroidism According to Article Contributed by Kent Holtorf, M.D. in Clinical Geriatrics"  (2012), http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/studies-show-that-tsh-is-unreliable...

"High Cholesterol: New Strategy for an old Battle", Silas Hoffman, Life Extension magazine, November 12, 2012, p. 87-93;  http://www.lef.org/lefcms/aspx/Zmags.aspx?pid=4f7a816d&source=CVK200E p.89-95

If you have ANY kind of health problem, reading up on hypothyroidism might be a good investment of your time.

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Another factor that can blunt immune system response is mitochondrial dysfunction that comes with age:

"The consensus among researchers is that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a central role in the development of virtually all age-related diseases. . . . While compounds like coenzyme Q10,2-6 carnitine,7-9 and lipoic acid10-14 support mitochondrial function, it is critical that new mitochondria are generated if we are to protect against age-related decline." http://www.lef.org/magazine/mag2011/feb2011_Our-Aging-Mitochondria_01.htm

"Based upon the current research there is no question that it plays a critical role in mammalian nutrition.1,4 When PQQ is omitted from chemically defined diets it leads to growth impairment, compromised immune status, and abnormal reproductive function.5 . . . Like essential nutrients, the immune system seems particularly sensitive to low levels of PQQ. With PQQ deprivation there are multiple defects in immune function and loss of B- and T-cell sensitivity.1 ( "Pyrroloquinoline Quinone - A newly discovered vitamin-like compound" , http://www.bioclinicnaturals.com/ca/en/articles/4/conditions-and-diseases/. . . )

New mitochondria can be generated through the use of a supplement called PQQ:

"In 2010, researchers at the University of California at Davis released a peer-reviewed publication showing that a natural compound called PQQ (pyrroloquinoline quinone) promotes the formation of new mitochondria within cells.18

For the first time, humans are empowered with a natural agent to reverse the deadly decline in functional mitochondria that underlies degenerative disease and premature aging."  http://www.lef.org/magazine/mag2011/feb2011_Our-Aging-Mitochondria_01.htm , http://www.lef.org/magazine/mag2011/feb2011_Generate-Fresh-Mitochondria-with-PQQ_01.htm  

"According to Japanese research PQQ plays a crucial role in immune system functioning and fertility.  As in the case of other vitamins PQQ is not naturally produced in the body, it must be supplied by the diet.  The best sources of PQQ are parsley, green peppers and kiwi fruit." http://www.kateandthekitchen.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=10&Itemid=2

Every system in the body is dependent on an adequate supply of energy for proper functioning. The cells generate that energy in their mitochondria (tiny cellular components with their own DNA). In the elderly, this supply of energy gradually becomes sparse, and health becomes fragile. Stressors like an illness or surgery can deplete the available levels below that required for life,  resulting in death a few months or a year or two later. Generating new mitochondria with supplements might be a way to forestall this eventuality.

Two supplements that appear useful for this purpose are from the Life Extension Foundation:

PQQ Caps with BioPQQ™, 10 mg, 30 capsules, product # 01500
Mitochondrial Energy Optimizer with BioPQQ™, product  #01568

PQQ seems to work best with CoQ10, and possibly acetyl-L-carnitine and R-alpha lipoic acid. The intended application here is, of course, support for normal immune response in the elderly. But very little is known about the particulars at this point, so proceed cautiously.

See also:

"Epidemic of Immunosenescence",  Maegen Rawlls http://www.lef.org/magazine/mag2012/ss2012_Epidemic-Immunosenescence_01.htm
"How Reishi Combats Aging",  Emily Steiner http://www.lef.org/magazine/mag2013/feb2013_how-reishi-combats-aging_02.htm 
"Fight Immune Decline with Reishi", Walter Thompson, LEF Magazine (August 2014)  http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/6af0a3a9#/6af0a3a9/66 

"Reverse Age-Related Immune Dysfunction", LEF Magazine (January 2015)      http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/64ef3aa6#/64ef3aa6/1

"How Immune Decline Hastens Aging"   http://www.lifeextension.com/Magazine/2015/1    (various articles about immune senescence and remedies)

Zinc:

Abstract: "Infections may cause mortality in old age due to damaged immune responses. As zinc is required as a catalyst, structural (zinc fingers) and regulatory ion, it is involved in many biological functions, including immune responses. Low zinc ion bioavailability and impaired cell-mediated immunity are common in ageing and may be restored by physiological supplementation with zinc for 1–2 months, impacting upon morbidity and survival. This article reviews the role of zinc in immune efficacy during ageing, and also describes the main biochemical pathways involved in the role of zinc in resistance to infections in ageing in order to better understand the possible causes of immunosenescence." ("Zinc, infections and immunosenescence", Eugenio Mocchegiani, Robertina Giacconi, Mario Muzzioli, Catia Cipriano http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0047637400001949 )

"How Low-Cost Zinc Helps Combat Deadly Immunosenescence", Heath Ramsey (2014) Life Extension Magazine Vol. 20, No.3 March 2014 p. 56-64 http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/a0f192fd#/a0f192fd/58    http://www.lef.org/Health-Wellness/LECMS/Zmags.aspx?pid=a0f192fd&source=CVC400E

Related:

"How Green Tea Protects Against Alzheimer's Disease", Michael Downey, LEF Magazine, August 2014, p. 22-30  http://viewer.zmags.com/publication/6af0a3a9#/6af0a3a9/24 

__________

For some other interesting ideas about common health problems see: "How to improve American Healthcare" http://scripturalphysics.org/etc/NosocomialInfections.html#ImproveHealthcare

"Social control has become a dominant theme since the Second World War. Modifying and
regulating social thought through both legal and financial steerage has brought natural discovery
 and true technological development to a standstill. World changing discoveries can be made
but not proliferated. Cures for diseases can be proven, but not implemented."
Lost Science, Gerry Vassilatos (1999)
http://www.tuks.nl/pdf/Reference_Material/Aetherforce_Libary/Lost%20
Science/Gerry%20Vassilatos%20-Lost-Science-Complete-Edition.pdf

(p 118-119;    p. 162 in the book)
 

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