Download page for "Beyond Einstein: non-local physics" 2015 by Brian Fraser
(Last modified 10-20-17)

Click this link to download BeyondEinstein.pdf   (Registration: TX 8-223-345)

The paper can also be downloaded from:    

The document format supports printing of two pages per sheet, and binding on the left long edge.

Intended audience:
1. People who enjoy science, especially physics.
2. People who teach physics, especially at the highschool and college level.
3. People who want our society to progress, and who want to eliminate blindspots and misconceptions.

Not mentioned in the article:

“the source of a substantial fraction of the FUV background radiation remains a mystery. The radiation is remarkably uniform at both far northern and far southern Galactic latitudes…” See “The Mystery of the Cosmic Diffuse Ultraviolet Background Radiation”, Richard Conn Henry, Jayant Murthy, James Overduin, Joshua Tyler (2014)

“What we know as the universe could actually be just one of a pair that exists in the same space but at different times.” (Science News, July 25, 2015, p. 17 “Times Arrow”.)

light speed?
Quasars, certain galaxies, and gamma ray bursters have redshifts above z = 1. Example: the quasar ULAS J1120+0641, is at z = 7.1  The "non-local" interpretation is that this kind of  redshift represents  motion at 7 times the speed of light. The "local"  interpretation is that these redshifts are Hubble shifts (indicative of distance) and should be "corrected" to less than light speed.    (Refs: ;  see note 3  )  

"Relativity in the Global Positioning System", Neil Ashby (2003)      

"Although the theories cannot answer what happens at c, the scientists suspect that an object crossing the "light barrier" may have some very interesting consequences. They compare our current understanding of this boundary to that of an object crossing the sound barrier for the first time, an event that was highly disputed before it was achieved in 1947.

"People wondered what would happen," Hill said. "Were we all going to disintegrate? Would the plane fall apart? It turns out passing through the speed of sound led to a big bang. I suspect going through the speed of light will be more interesting. I have a feeling the world will change in some dramatic way as we move through the speed of . All sorts of things could happen. Time and space could interchange."

"Quantum teleportation relies on the strange nature of quantum physics, which finds that the fundamental building blocks of the universe can essentially exist in two or more places at once."  

'How Einstein Revealed the Universe's Strange "Nonlocality" ',  George Musser  (November 1, 2015)   

"The world we experience possesses all the qualities of locality. We have a strong sense of place and of the relations among places. . . . And yet multiple branches of physics now suggest that, at a deeper level, there may be no such thing as place and no such thing as distance. Physics experiments can bind the fate of two particles together so that they behave like a pair of magic coins. . . . They act in a coordinated way even though no force passes through the space between them. Those particles might zip off to opposite sides of the universe, and still they act in unison. The particles violate locality—they transcend space."
"After 11 years, physicists must rethink gravitational waves",  (September 29, 2015)  

 "Experimental Confirmation of the Doubts about Authenticity of Event GW150914", Lukanenkov, A.V. (2017).  Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics, 5, 538-550.  

Search for Gravitational Waves Associated with Gamma-Ray Bursts During the First Advanced LIGO Observing Run and Implications for the Origin of GRB 150906B

"We present the results of the search for gravitational waves (GWs) associated with γ-ray bursts detected during the first observing run of the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO). We find no evidence of a GW signal for any of the 41 γ-ray bursts for which LIGO data are available with sufficient duration."  

 If gravity propagated at the speed of light instead of instantaneously, the effects on orbits of satelites and solar system planets would be very obvious.  However, these are relatively small systems.  Instead of a solar system, consider the effects on something the size of a galaxy:

We know, the solar system and other stars are orbiting around the center of the Milky Way and the radius of the Milky Way is larger than 5☓104 light-year. . . .  But, we know, the Milky Way is moving with a speed on the level of 5☓102km/s.[6] Therefore, the distance between the retarded position and present position of the center of the Milky way is
 . . . 25 light-year. And, a galaxy is usually older than . . . 1☓1010 years . . . . The distance between the retarded and present positions of this center should become larger than 5 x 106 ly. In this case, a spiral galaxy could not maintain with the form of a disc. Instead, it was a very long strip along the direction of the galaxy moving. However, no galaxy has become such a long strip one.  ("The speed of gravit;y:  An observation on galaxy motions ", Yin Zhu (September 2016)   DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.30917.45287   )

Mass has the dimensions of t3/s3 .  Momentum has the dimensions of  t2/s2 .  Energy is t1/s1 .   Logicallly then, mass has enough dimensional freedom to absorb (or store) a massless particle (having only momentum) and it could also absorb a photon of energy. But the reverse is not true. Photons cannot store mass, nor can massless particles store mass.  Massless particles, like the neutrino, however, can acquire more energy (as in Beta decay).
"Milgrom noted that this discrepancy could be resolved if the gravitational force . . .  came to vary inversely with radius (as opposed to the inverse square of the radius, as in Newton's Law of Gravity).    
A partial answer:  the speed of light equates to the value of 1/1. It is what the speed of light actually is.  And this is a number with special properties.  
1.  Only 1 is equal to its reciprocal
2.  Only 1 has the property of 10 = 11 = 12 = 13
The real question:  why do humans equate this to 186,000 miles per second?

Related: TOP Secret Things about Mathematics you didn't Know - Full Documentary  
  (unit quantity mathematics)

An appeal to my readers

 The paper "Beyond Einstein: non-local physics" indicates that approximately half of our potential physics knowledge, the non-local portion, is missing. So far, we have only the non-local physics of quantum mechanics ("physics of unit space") which has a limited (but important) scope. The non-local "physics of unit speed" has been completely ignored, as has the important role played by other unit quantity boundaries. It now seems possible to combine the local and non-local descriptions into ONE seamless physical theory based on nothing more than space and time relationships (mass and charge would be derived concepts). 

This would be a huge undertaking. Currently there is nothing in mainstream science or mainstream publications that even hints of serious interest in this direction. Engineerable technology has been admirably well developed but the science--the basic understanding of how the Universe truly works--is still way off in the weeds. After 100 years we are still arguing about Special and General Relativity, and even something as simple and basic as gravity is still enigmatic at its roots.  

 Another problem is mathematical representation of physical phenomena. It is highly desirable to have seamless mathematics for a seamless physical theory. The mathematical framework must comfortably and naturally handle some rather strange and thoroughly unfamiliar (but still accessible) concepts:

 1. It must accommodate an absolute reference system based on centerless expansion of fundamental discrete unit space/time and time/space (i.e., motion and its inverse) and its relationship to a differential (relative) reference system such as the one in common use. It must comfortably accommodate motion with direction, motion with no direction (scalar motion), direction with no motion (intrinsic rotation), and a fundamentally stationary photon; (See  #DiagramSpeedsInGravBoundRef ;  In Search of the Geometry of Space, Time and Motion ;  )

 2. It must support the derivation of properties of space and time from motion; i.e., what kind of space (or time) comes from what kind of motion? (See   Gravitational Lensing and Deflection of Photons by Gravity ; see nebula photos)

 3. It must clarify a fundamental relationship between intrinsic rotation (spin) and translational motion.  (See  Origin of intrinsic spin  ; Some thoughts about intrinsic spin  ;  Effects of Spin )

 4. It must support mappings of non-local to local reference systems (and vice versa) including representations of fundamentally discrete units, unit quantity boundary inversions, indeterminacy, uncertainty, wave/particle manifestations, quantum interference, probability, effects of unit dimensional equalities  (11 = 12 = 13 ), etc. (See    #UFO Physics ; The Problem of Quantum Reality ; The Problem of Quantum Locality ; The Problem of Quantum Probability ; The Problem of Quantum Uncertainty ;  #PythagoreanProblem  )

 All of this could be handled by the various specialized, piecemeal mathematical systems commonly taught at the college level, but there seems to be a better choice: Geometric algebra:  

"Geometric algebra and its extension to geometric calculus unify, simplify, and generalize vast areas of mathematics involving geometric ideas, including linear algebra, vector calculus, exterior algebra and calculus, tensor algebra and calculus, quaternions, real analysis, complex analysis, and euclidean, noneuclidean, and projective geometries. They provide a common mathematical language for many areas of physics (classical and quantum mechanics, electrodynamics, special and general relativity) computer science . . . and other fields." (Linear and Geometric Algebra, Alan MacDonald  (2010) Preface )

 All of this could keep an army of scientists, mathematicians, and engineers busy for 100 years. It is the scientific equivalent of  "fill the Earth and subdue it" or staffing a newly discovered planet.

These are the things of God, and God will give us assistance just for the asking:

 “Let your cry come to me, and I will give you an answer, and let you see great things and secret things of which you had no knowledge.”  (Bible in Basic English, Jeremiah 33:3)

 Let the asking begin!

 "Though your beginning was insignificant, Yet your end will increase greatly. 
Job 8:7, NASB

"the ant" has "no chief, officer, or ruler" (Proverbs 6:6-7, NASB  
So, get to work!